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AP US History Chapter 23 Vocabulary

カード 30枚 作成者: American history (作成日: 2014/01/06)

  • Thomas Nast

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  • 1

    Thomas Nast

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • (1840-1902) U.S. illustrator and cartoonist in the "Gilded Age."

    解説

  • 2

    Horace Greeley

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • American newspaper editor, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, a reformer, and a politician. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper from the 1840s to the 1870s and "established his reputation as the greatest editor of his day."

    解説

  • 3

    Roscoe Conkling

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party and the last person to refuse a U.S. Supreme Court appointment after he had already been confirmed by the U.S. Senate.

    解説

  • 4

    James G. Blaine

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time Secretary of State. He was nominated for president in 1884, but lost a close race to Democrat Grover Cleveland.

    解説

  • 5

    Greenback Party

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A former political party, organized in 1874, opposed to the retirement or reduction of greenbacks and favoring their increase as the only paper currency.

    解説

  • 6

    James A. Garfield

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 20th President of the United States; assassinated by a frustrated office-seeker.

    解説

  • 7

    Chester A. Arthur

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. He was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the 20th Vice President under James Garfield. While Garfield was mortally wounded by Charles J. Guiteau on July 2, 1881, he did not die until September 19 of that year, at which time he was sworn in as president, serving until March 4, 1885.

    解説

  • 8

    Winfield S. Hancock

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A career U.S. Army officer and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1880. He served with distinction in the Army for four decades, including service in the Mexican-American War and as a Union general in the American Civil War, he was noted in particular for his personal leadership at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863.

    解説

  • 9

    Charles J. Guiteau

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An American lawyer who assassinated U.S. President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. He was executed by hanging.

    解説

  • 10

    Benjamin Harrison

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The 23rd President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893. A grandson of President William Henry Harrison, he was born in North Bend, Ohio, and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana at age 21, eventually becoming a prominent politician there. During the American Civil War, he served as a Brigadier General in the XX Corps of the Army of the Cumberland. After the war he unsuccessfully ran for the governorship of Indiana, and was later appointed to the U.S. Senate from that state.

    解説

  • 11

    Thomas Reed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1889-1891 and from 1895-1899. He was a powerful leader of the Republican Party, and during his tenure as Speaker of the House, he served with greater influence than any Speaker who came before, and he forever increased its power and influence for those who succeeded him in the position.

    解説

  • 12

    William McKinley

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The 25th President of the United States, and the last veteran of the American Civil War to be elected to that office. He was the last President of the 19th century and the first of 20th.

    解説

  • 13

    Gilded Age

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Refers to the era of rapid economic and population growth in the United States during the post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras of the late 19th century. The term "Gilded Age" was coined by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their 1873 book, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today. The name refers to the process of gilding an object with a superficial layer of gold and is meant to make fun of ostentatious display while playing on the term "golden age."

    解説

  • 14

    Spoils system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity.

    解説

  • 15

    pork-barrel bills

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A derogatory term referring to appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district.

    解説

  • 16

    populism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An ideologyor a type of discourse of sociopolitical thought that compares "the people" against "the elite", and urges social and political system changes.

    解説

  • 17

    grandfather clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A clause in the constitutions of some Southern states after 1890 intended to permit whites to vote while disfranchising blacks: it exempted from new literacy and property qualifications for voting those men entitled to vote before 1867 and their lineal descendants.

    解説

  • 18

    Tweed Ring

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An American politician most notable for being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York City and State. At the height of his influence,he was the third-largest landowner in New York City, a director of the Erie Railway, the Tenth National Bank, and the New-York Printing Company, as well as proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel.

    解説

  • 19

    Credit Mobilier

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A joint-stock company organized in 1863 and reorganized in 1867 to build the Union Pacific Railroad. It was involved in a scandal in 1872 in which high government officials were accused of accepting bribes.

    解説

  • 20

    Grand Army of the Republic (GAR)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A fraternal organization composed of veterans of the Union Army who served in the American Civil War. It was among the first organized advocacy groups in American politics and was succeeded by the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War (SUVCW).

    解説

  • 21

    Jim Fisk

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Variously as "Big Jim," "Diamond Jim," and "Jubilee Jim," he was an American stock broker and corporate executive.

    解説

  • 22

    Compromise of 1877

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Also known as the Corrupt Bargain, refers to a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election and ended Congressional ("Radical") Reconstruction. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana.

    解説

  • 23

    Plessy v. Ferguson

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in private businesses (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal".

    解説

  • 24

    Mugwumps

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Republican political activists who bolted from the United States Republican Party by supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884. They switched parties because they rejected the financial corruption associated with Republican candidate James G. Blaine.

    解説

  • 25

    The Railroad Strike of 1877

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Strike that began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, and federal troops.

    解説

  • 26

    Jim Crow

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were usually inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.

    解説

  • 27

    Chinese Exclusion Act

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A United States federal law signed by Chester A. Arthur on May 8, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years. This law was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943.

    解説

  • 28

    Sherman Silver Purchase Act

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Enacted on July 14, 1890 as a United States federal law, it was named after its author, Senator John Sherman, an Ohio Republican, chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month. It had been passed in response to the growing complaints of farmers and mining interests.

    解説

  • 29

    People's Party (Populists)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891. It was most important in 1892-96, then rapidly faded away. Based among poor, white cotton farmers in the South (especially North Carolina, Alabama, and Texas) and hard-pressed wheat farmers in the Plains states (especially Kansas and Nebraska), it represented a radical crusading form of agrarianism and hostility to banks, railroads, and elites generally.

    解説

  • 30

    Billion-Dollar Congress

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1889 to March 4, 1891, during the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Benjamin Harrison.

    解説

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