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AP American History Chapter 13 Terms

カード 17枚 作成者: American history (作成日: 2014/01/06)

  • Corrupt Bargain

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  • 1

    Corrupt Bargain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adams' favor; though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824

    解説

  • 2

    Spoils System

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first widely employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson; the practice was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging two-party system

    解説

  • 3

    Tariff of Abominations

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports; Southernors vehemently opposed this, arguing that it hurt Southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures

    解説

  • 4

    Nullification Crisis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties; it was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in1 833

    解説

  • 5

    Compromise Tariff of 1833

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • passed as a measure to resolve the nullification crisis, it provided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of ten years, to 1816 levels

    解説

  • 6

    Force Bill

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • passed by Congress alongside the Compromise Tariff, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties

    解説

  • 7

    Indian Removal Act

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ordered the removal of Indian Tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri; tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by American forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles

    解説

  • 8

    Trail of Tears

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • forced march of 15,000 Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory; some 4,000 Cherokee died on the arduous journey

    解説

  • 9

    Black Hawk War

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • series of clashes in Illinois and Wisconsin between American forces and Indian chief Black Hawk of the Sauk and Fox tribes, who unsuccessfully tried to reclaim territory lost under the 1830 Indian Removal Act

    解説

  • 10

    Bank War

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • battle between President Andrew Jackson and Congressional supporters of the Bank of the United States over the bank's renewal in 1832; Jackson vetoed this, arging that the bank favored moneyed interests at the expense of western farmers

    解説

  • 11

    Anti-Masonic Party

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • first founded in New York, it gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential Masonic order, a secret society; members of this opposed Andrew Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants

    解説

  • 12

    Pet Banks

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the United States in 1833

    解説

  • 13

    Specie Circular

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • U.S. Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchased with "hard," or metallic, currency; issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the West

    解説

  • 14

    Panic of 1837

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices, and Andrew Jackson's efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands and transportation improvements; in response, President Martin Van Buren proposed the "Divorce Bill," which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contradicting the credit supply

    解説

  • 15

    Alamo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fortress in Texas where four hundred American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna in 1836, "Remember the Alamo" became a battle cry in support of Texan independence

    解説

  • 16

    Goliad

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Texas outpost where American volunteers, having lain down their arms and surrendered, were massacred by Mexican forces in 1836; the incident, along with the slaughter at the Alamo, fueled American support for Texan independence

    解説

  • 17

    Battle of San Jacinto

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • resulted in the capture of Mexican dictator Santa Anna, who was forced to withdraw his troops from Texas and recognize the Rio Grande as Texas's Southwestern border

    解説

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