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AP American History Chapter 12 Terms

カード 24枚 作成者: American history (作成日: 2014/01/06)

  • War of 1812

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  • 1

    War of 1812

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fought between Britain and the United States largely over the issues of trade and impressment; though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interest militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers

    解説

  • 2

    Battle of New Orleans

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • resounding victory of American forces against the British, restoring American confidence and fueling an outpouring of nationalism; final battle of the War of 1812

    解説

  • 3

    Congress of Vienna

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France

    解説

  • 4

    Treaty of Ghent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ended the War of 1812 in a virtual draw, restoring prewar borders but failing to address any of the grievances that first brought America into the war

    解説

  • 5

    Hartford Convention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • convention of Federalists from five New England states who opposed the War of 1812 and resented the strength of Southern and Western interests in Congress and in the White House

    解説

  • 6

    Rush-Bagot Agreement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • signed by Britain and the United States, it established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s

    解説

  • 7

    Tariff of 1816

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • first protective tariff in American history, created primarily to shield New England manufacturers from the inflow of British goods after the War of 1812

    解説

  • 8

    American System

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Henry Clay's three-pronged system to promote American industry; Clay advocated a strong banking system, a protective tariff, and a federally funded transportation network

    解説

  • 9

    Era of Good Feelings

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • popular name for the period of one-party, Republican, rule during James Monroe's presidency; the term obscures bitter conflicts over internal improvements, slavery, and the national bank

    解説

  • 10

    Panic of 1819

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands; it disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of jacksonian Democracy

    解説

  • 11

    Land Act of 1820

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fueled the settlement of the Northwest and Missouri territories by lowering the price of public land; also prohibited the purchase of federal acreage on credit, thereby eliminating one of the causes of the Panic of 1819

    解説

  • 12

    Tallmadge Amendment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory and pave the way for gradual emancipation; southerners vehemently opposed the amendment, which they perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between North and South

    解説

  • 13

    Peculiar Institution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • widely used term for the institution of American slavery in the South; its use in the first half of the nineteenth century reflected a growing division between the North, where slavery was gradually abolished, and the South, where slavery became increasingly entrenched

    解説

  • 14

    Missouri Compromise

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36'30'

    解説

  • 15

    McCulloch v. Maryland

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Supreme Court case that strengthened federal authority and upheld the constitutionality of the Bank of the United States by establishing that the State of Maryland did not have the power to tax the bank

    解説

  • 16

    Loose Construction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • legal doctrine which holds that the federal government can use powers not specifically granted or prohibited in the Constitution to carry out its constitutionally mandated responsibilities

    解説

  • 17

    Cohens v. Virginia

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal governmnent

    解説

  • 18

    Gibbons v. Ogden

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • suit over whether New York State could grant a monopoly to a ferry operating on interstate waters; the ruling reasserted that Congress had the sole power to regulate interstate commerce

    解説

  • 19

    Fletcher v. Peck

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • established firmer protection for private property and asserted the right of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws in conflict with the federal Constitution

    解説

  • 20

    Dartmouth College v. Woodward

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments

    解説

  • 21

    Anglo-American Convention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • signed by Britain and the United States, the pact allowed New England fishermen access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the northern border of Louisiana territory and provided for the joint occcupation of the Oregon Country for ten years

    解説

  • 22

    Florida Purchase Treaty

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Adams-Onis Treaty; under this agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas

    解説

  • 23

    Monroe Doctrine

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • statement delivered by President James Monroe, warning European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas; the United States largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets

    解説

  • 24

    Russo-American Treaty

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fixed the line of 54'40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America

    解説

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