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AP American History Chapter 11 Terms

カード 17枚 作成者: American history (作成日: 2014/01/06)

  • Revolution of 1800

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  • 1

    Revolution of 1800

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • electoral victory of Democratic-Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency; the peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in America's political system

    解説

  • 2

    Patronage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a system, prevalent during the Gilded Age, in which political parties granted jobs and favors to party regulars who delivered votes on election day; it was both an essential wellspring of support for both parties and a source of conflict within the Republican Party

    解説

  • 3

    Judiciary Act of 1801

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • passed by the departing Federalist Congress, it created sixteen new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary

    解説

  • 4

    Midnight Judges

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • federal justices appointed by John Adams during the last days of his presidency; their positions were revoked when the newly elected Republican Congress repealed the Judiciary Act

    解説

  • 5

    Marbury v. Madison

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Supreme Court case that established the principle of "judicial review"--the idea that the Supreme Court had the final authority to determine constitutionality

    解説

  • 6

    Tripolitan War

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • four-year conflict between the American Navy and the North-African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Mediterranean; Jefferson, a stunch noninterventionist, reluctantly deployed American forces, eventually securing a peace treaty with Tripoli

    解説

  • 7

    Haitian Revolution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • war incited by a slave uprising in French-controlled Saint Domingue, resulting in the creation of the first independent black republic in the Americas

    解説

  • 8

    Louisiana Purchase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • acquisition of Louisiana territory from France; this more than doubled the territory of the United States, opened vast tracts for settlement

    解説

  • 9

    Corps of Discovery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • team of adventurers, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore Louisiana Territory, and find a water route to the Pacific; Lewis and Clark brought back detailed accounts of the West's flora, fauna, and native populations, and their voyage demonstrated the vibility of overland travel to the West

    解説

  • 10

    Orders in Council

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • edicts issued by the British Crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping; the French responded by ordering the seizure of all vessels entering British ports, thereby cutting off American merchants from trade with both parties

    解説

  • 11

    Impressment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • act of forcibly drafting an individual into military serice, employed by the British navy against American seamen in times of war against France, 1793-1815; it was a continual source of conflict between Britain and the United States in the early national period

    解説

  • 12

    Chesapeake Affair

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • conflict between Britain and the United States that precipitated the 1807 embargo; the conflict developed when a British ship, in search of deserters, fired on the American Chesapeake off the course of Virginia

    解説

  • 13

    Embargo Act

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • enacted in response to British and French mistreatment of American merchants, this banned the export of all goods from the United States to any foreign port; it placed great strains on the American economy while only marginally affecting its European targets, and was therefore repealed in 1809

    解説

  • 14

    Non-Intercourse Act

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • passed alongside the repeal of the Embargo Act, it reopened trade with all but the two belligerent nations, Britain and France; it continued Jefferson's policy of economic coercion, still with little effect

    解説

  • 15

    Macon's Bill No. 2

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Britain and France, the act stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restrictions, the United States would reinstate the embargo against the nonrepealing nation; when Napoleon oppered to lift his restrictions on British ports, the United States was forced to declare an embargo on Britain, thereby pushing the two nations toward war

    解説

  • 16

    War Hawks

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Democratic-Republican Congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain; largely drawn from the South and West, they resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier

    解説

  • 17

    Battle of Tippecanoe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, "the Prophet" at the hands of William Henry Harrison in the Indiana wilderness; after the battle, the Prophet's brother, Tecumseh, forged an alliance with the British against the United States

    解説

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