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AP American History Chapter 7

カード 67枚 作成者: American history (作成日: 2014/01/06)

  • Jeffersonian democracy

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  • 1

    Jeffersonian democracy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • not actually a democray, in the classic sense of the word, Jefferson believed that the masses were capable of selecting their own representatices and, if properly educated and informed, would select the best and the wisest to govern. Once these were chosen, however, this "natural aristocracy" should be allowed to govern without interference from those who selected them. Only hen they stood again for election would these representatives be called on to explain their actions.

    解説

  • 2

    Patronage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the control of political appointments assumed by the victors in an election- the "spoils" of victory, which the victors hand out as rewards to their followers; hence the practice became known as the "spoils system."

    解説

  • 3

    judicial review

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the power of a court to review a law, compare it with the Constitution, and rule on whether it does or does not conform to the principles of the Constitution- whether it is consitutional or unconstitutional.

    解説

  • 4

    impeachment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The bringing of charges against a governmental official by the House of Representatices. removal from office cannot come from impeachement alone. A trial must be held in the Senante, and on conviction there, the offender may be removed from his or her post.

    解説

  • 5

    embargo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An act that prohibits ships from entering or leaving a nation's ports.

    解説

  • 6

    Republican vision of American Society

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • virtuous and enlightened citizenry enforced by a "crusade against ignorance"

    解説

  • 7

    Republican Mother

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The role of mothers in early 19th Century American Society that held them responsible for raising the next generation of republicans.

    解説

  • 8

    Judith Sargent Murray

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • First public womens rights activist, although not supported or cited until after her death, argued that because men and women were equal in intellect, they should have equal opportunities to get an education.

    解説

  • 9

    Higher Education

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • While _____ _______ flourished after the revolution, many teachings at the universities and colleges, mainly in the medical colleges, were based in traditional beliefs of the four humors.

    解説

  • 10

    Benjamin Rush

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • While a pioneer in the field of sanitation, this man was an advocate of traditional forms of healing- bleeding and purging.

    解説

  • 11

    New American Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The beginning of the new American image portrayed by authors such as Washington Irving, Mercy Otis Waren, Noah Webster, and Mason Weems.

    解説

  • 12

    American Spelling Book

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • First published in 1783, commonly known as the blue-backed speller. It eventually sold over 100 million copies, to become the best-selling book besides the Bible in the history of American publishing. written by Noah Webster.

    解説

  • 13

    Deism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.

    解説

  • 14

    Unitarianism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • belief that God existed in only one person (hence unitarian), and not in the orthodox Trinity; denied the divinity of Jesus; stressed the essential goodness of human nature rather than its vileness; believed in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works; God as a loving father rather than stern Creator; followed by Ralph Waldo Emerson; appealed to intellectuals whose rationalism and optimism naturally made them not support the hellfire doctrines of Calvinism (especially predestination and human depravity)

    解説

  • 15

    The Second Great Awakening

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • This was the second religious revival in the United States in which masses of people would gather to pray and many souls were "saved". The Methodists and Baptists became the most abundant religion from heavy recruiting. The Second Great Awakening renewed religion as the center of American culture and redefined American religions much as it had done a hundred years previous by reaching out to the masses.

    解説

  • 16

    Gabriel Prosser

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An African-American preacher who claimed that salvation was possible for all. He tried to lead a slave rebellion, but it was discovered and crushed in the planning stages

    解説

  • 17

    Neolin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • In the 1760's this prophet sparked widespread revival in the Old Northwest with a message combining Christian and Indian imagery and bringing to Native American religion a vision of a personal God, intimately involved in the affairs of man.

    解説

  • 18

    Handsome Lake

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a Seneca, who led the most important revivalism among Native Americans, had a miraculous rebirth after years of alcoholism helped give him a special stature with his tribe. His message, which mostly spread to the remaining Iroquois, said that Native Americans should give up the nasty customs they developed from white culture, and restore the quality of the Indian world.

    解説

  • 19

    Freethinkers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • This group of people rejected the Second Great Awakening and their influence in the American Christian Community dropped dramatically after 1800.

    解説

  • 20

    Eli Whitney

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.

    解説

  • 21

    John Fitch

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Built the first steamboat which was 45 feet long with paddle powered by steam to the Constitutional Convention in 1787.

    解説

  • 22

    Oliver Evans

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Created several ingenious machines: automated flour mill, card-making machine, published American's first textbook of mechanical engineering, developed a high-pressure engine which made it easier for steam to power boats

    解説

  • 23

    James Watt

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry

    解説

  • 24

    Robert Fulton

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship - Clermont

    解説

  • 25

    Nicholas J. Roosevelt

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Introduced the steamboat to the West by sending the New Orleans* (steamboat*) from Pittsburgh down the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.

    解説

  • 26

    Turnpike Era

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Began in 1790's ended in the 1820's, the first turnpike was built out of hard packed stone, stretching 60 miles between Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pennsylvania. BLANK are named after the types of tollgates used on them. they were also built by private companies in highly populated areas for profits.

    解説

  • 27

    Pierre L'Enfant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • French architect who designed the layout of Washington, DC with broad avenues and park-like areas

    解説

  • 28

    Albert Gallatin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • He was an American politician, diplomat, and Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for balancing the budget, which let America purchase the Louisiana territory from France.

    解説

  • 29

    Charles C. Pickney

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1804, Fed. nominee against Jefferson. Couldn't even carry most of the party's New England strongholds. Jefferson won. Resulted with Republican majorities in both houses of Congress.

    解説

  • 30

    William Marbury

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Appointed by Adams as one of the midnight judges. Then, the Secretary of State under Jefferson, Madison, didn't send the commission, BLANK sued to get it, claiming he was legally owed his commission. The case went to the Supreme Court, where Marshall denied it, on the grounds that the Judiciary Act, on which BLANK based his case, was unconstitutional. This then gave the Supreme Court final say over weather a law is constitutional or not, which had not been established up to that point.

    解説

  • 31

    Barbury States

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • states of North Africa - Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli which demanded money from foreign ships that sailed into the Mediterranean so they would not attack the merchant ships.

    解説

  • 32

    Repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Pushed by his Republican followers, Jefferson repealed this act thus eliminating the judgeships of John Adam's Midnight Appointments

    解説

  • 33

    Marbury v. Madison

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A landmark case in United States law and the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States, under Article Three of the United States Constitution. The case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury, who had been appointed as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia by President John Adams shortly before leaving office, but whose commission was not delivered as required by John Marshall, Adams's Secretary of State. When Thomas Jefferson assumed office, he ordered the new Secretary of State, James Madison, to withhold Marbury's and several other men's commissions. Marbury and three others petitioned the Court to force Madison to deliver the commission to Marbury. The Supreme Court denied Marbury's petition, holding that the statute upon which he based his claim was unconstitutional.

    解説

  • 34

    John Marshall

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court. Essentially made the Supreme Court equal to the President and Congress

    解説

  • 35

    Samuel Chase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The Supreme Court justice that Jefferson tried to have removed through the impeachment process. Was acquitted of charges, which helped establish that impeachment would not become a routine political weapon.

    解説

  • 36

    Toussaint L'Ouverture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The black leader of the Santo Domingo rebellion inspired by the French Revolution which was eventually crushed by an army sent by Napoleon

    解説

  • 37

    Robert R. Livingston

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • along with James Monroe, negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million

    解説

  • 38

    Louisiana Purchase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

    解説

  • 39

    Louis and Clark

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Sent by President Jefferson, they explored the lands of the Louisiana Purchase mostly along the Missouri River. They made contact with Native Americans, and reported on the geography, plants, and animals of the region. they found a waterway between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean.

    解説

  • 40

    Zebulon Pike

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • American soldier and explorer whom Pikes Peak in Colorada is named. His Pike expedition often compared to the lewis and Clark expedition, mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisianna Purchase

    解説

  • 41

    Essex Junto

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The BLANK BLANK was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England's secession from the U.S.

    解説

  • 42

    Hamilton and Burr

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • These two politicians dueled over cruel remarks from both sides- July morning 1804 BLANK is mortally wounded in the duel and dies the next day

    解説

  • 43

    General James Wilkinson

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • governor of the Louisiana Territory who was rumored to want to take over Mexico with Burr or create a separate western empire. BLANK turned on Burr and reported him to president.

    解説

  • 44

    Continental System

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy

    解説

  • 45

    Orders in Council

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Britain's policy which said that any ships trying to trade with France would be taken or destroyed in Britain's attempt to blockade France. Britain's reaction to Napoleon's Continental System.

    解説

  • 46

    Impressment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The practice of capturing American sailors from American ships sailing on the Atlantic ocean and forcing them to fight for the British navy in the war England was fighting against France in the first two decades of the 19th century. England asserted that every man born in England was always an Englishman but the British were also seizing American born sailors.

    解説

  • 47

    Chesapeake-Leopard Incident

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an English naval vessel, requested permission to board a smaller American naval vessel. When refused, the British fire The British then removed four sailors that were alleged English deserters. Because of this incident President Jefferson, announce the Embargo Act.

    解説

  • 48

    Embargo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • signed by thomas jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all american goods and american ships from sailing for foreign ports

    解説

  • 49

    Non-Intercourse Act

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.

    解説

  • 50

    Macon's Bill No. 2

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

    解説

  • 51

    Peaceable Coercion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Jefferson's policy- the denial of American trade; Jefferson's not trading with, fighting with or associating with other countries

    解説

  • 52

    William Henry Harrison

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Govenor of the Indiana territory, that fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe

    解説

  • 53

    Tecumseh

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.

    解説

  • 54

    Tenskwatawa

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • He was called the Prophet, a Shawnee. He said his soul had taken a journey to the spirit world/learned the path that all Native Americans must take if they wanted to live happily. He said Native Americans must reject white ways and no longer trade with the settlers.

    解説

  • 55

    Battle of Tippecanoe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.

    解説

  • 56

    War Hawks

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.

    解説

  • 57

    Henry Clay

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Distinguished senator from Kentucky, He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives.

    解説

  • 58

    Put-In-Bay

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • On Lake Erie; When Oliver Hazard Perry dispersed a British fleet at this place in 1813, it made another invasion of Canada possible. Canada was accessible through Detroit, and when the Americans seized Lake Erie, they got a chance to raid and burn York

    解説

  • 59

    Battle of Horseshoe Bend

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fought during the War of 1812 in central Alabama. On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek Indian tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.

    解説

  • 60

    August 24, 1814

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The British set fire to Washington, D.C.

    解説

  • 61

    Francis Scott Key

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Fort McHenry during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.

    解説

  • 62

    Battle of Plattsburgh

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • American forces turned back a much larger British naval and land force and secured the northern border of the US

    解説

  • 63

    Battle of New Orleans

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.

    解説

  • 64

    Hartford Convention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence

    解説

  • 65

    Treaty of Ghent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

    解説

  • 66

    Rush-Bagot Agreement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An agreement that limited navel power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada.

    解説

  • 67

    John Quincy Adams

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • One of the delegates who negotiated the end of the War of 1812 with the Treat of Ghent.

    解説

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