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BIO 100

カード 103枚 作成者: Akane Ota (作成日: 2015/02/01)

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    Variable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Characteristic with values that differ

    解説

    eg: student heights

  • 2

    Value

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Quantity, magnitude, number or rank of a variable

    解説

    Values of the gender variable are male and female

  • 3

    Constant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Characteristic with values that do not differ

    解説

    number of noses in a group of student

  • 4

    Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Possible cause of puzzling observation

    解説

    possible explanation

  • 5

    Planned test

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Conditions to test a hypothesis

    解説

  • 6

    Prediction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Statement of expected (future) outcome of test

    解説

    Assuming that hypothesis is correct

  • 7

    Deduction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • If/ and / then reasoning, hypothesis + planned test gives prediction (expected result)

    解説

  • 8

    Conclusion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Hypothesis supported, contradicted, or not sure

    解説

  • 9

    Biology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the science of living things and their interaction with each other and the physical world. Science attempts to explain nature by generating and testing alternative explanation

    解説

  • 10

    What do prokaryotic cell use to regulate gene expression?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • repressor

    解説

  • 11

    What do Eukaryotic cells use to regulate gene expression?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Activators

    解説

  • 12

    A large molecule composed of amino acid

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Protein

    解説

  • 13

    The process of using instruction carried on gene to create proteins

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Protein synthesis

    解説

  • 14

    A sequence of DNA that encodes a protein

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Gene

    解説

  • 15

    Protein Synthesis From Gene to Protein - Double stranded - Single stranded

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Double

    解説

  • 16

    Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression From Gene to Protein DNA 4 bases

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine

    解説

  • 17

    Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression From Gene to Protein Each nucleotide ヌクレオチド composed of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • deoxyribose Phosphate Nitrogenous base

    解説

  • 18

    Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression From Gene to Protein RNA Double stranded? Single stranded?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Single

    解説

  • 19

    Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression From Gene to Protein Nucleotides of composed of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ribose phosphate nitrogenous base

    解説

  • 20

    Protein Synthesis and Gene Expression From Gene to Protein RNA 4 bases

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A,C,G, and U

    解説

  • 21

    Transcription: ___ binds to the promoter region of the gene it zips down the length of gene, matching RNA nucleotides with complementary DNA nucleoties

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • RNA polymerase

    解説

    タンパク質の設計図は遺伝子DNAに存在します。遺伝子DNAに書かれたタンパク質の情報はいったんmRNA(メッセンジャーRNA)に転写された後に、リボソームによってアミノ酸へと翻訳されタンパク質ができます。ここでDNAからmRNAへの転写を行うのがRNAポリメラーゼです。 RNAポリメラーゼは遺伝子DNAを鋳型に、RNAの素となる4つのヌクレオシド(A:アデノシン, U:ウリジン, G:グアノシン, C:シチジン)を重合しmRNAを合成します。

  • 22

    Translation occurs in the_____

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Cytoplasm (outside the nucleus)

    解説

    Cytoplasm: Gelatin-like fluid that lies inside the cell membrane Contains salts, minerals and organic molecules Surrounds the nucleus and organelles Most cellular activities occur (metabolic pathways): glycolysis, and processes such as cell division.

  • 23

    Translation requires

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mRNA (made during transcription) amino acids, energy (ATP), and some helper molecules -Ribosomes -Transfer RNA (tRNA)

    解説

  • 24

    Transfer RNA tRNA carries ___ and matches its ___ with ___ on mRNA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • amino acids, anticodon, codons

    解説

    Codons are 3 nucleotides long (UUU) tRNAはmRNA中の3つの塩基配列の並び方(コドン)を翻訳することで合成するアミノ酸を決定する。つまり、tRNAはリボソームのタンパク質合成を手伝っている。一つのコドンが一つのアミノ酸に対応している。

  • 25

    Ribosome facilitates the docking of ____ to ____.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tRNA anticodon to mRNA codons

    解説

  • 26

    A codon is comprised of three nucleotides __ possible combinations

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 64

    解説

    4の3乗

  • 27

    Ends protein synthesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3 stop codons

    解説

  • 28

    Location of the gene on chromosome

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Loci

    解説

  • 29

    Alternative forms of traint

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Allele

    解説

    異なる遺伝子情報を持つ遺伝子

  • 30

    When heterogygote express a phenotype intermediate between both colors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Incomplete Dominance

    解説

  • 31

    When two alleles are expressed at same time

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Codominance

    解説

  • 32

    When there are more than two alleles of a gene

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Multiple Allelism

    解説

    ABO blood type

  • 33

    The ability of a single gene to cause multiple effects on the individuals phenotype

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Pleitropy

    解説

    ex: hemophilia

  • 34

    sexual production

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Meiosis

    解説

  • 35

    Cellular reproductin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Mitosis

    解説

  • 36

    When the egg and sperm nuclei fuse it forms a zygote

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Diploid

    解説

  • 37

    A single set of chromosomes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Haploid

    解説

  • 38

    A thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Plasma membrane

    解説

  • 39

    give the cell strength and structure to filter molecules that pass in and out of the cell

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • can find only in plants

    答え

    • Cell Wall

    解説

  • 40

    The frame that gives shape to cell. I is a series of intercellular

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Cytoskelton

    解説

    細胞骨格

  • 41

    Providing a site for genetic transcription that is segregated from the location of translation in the cytoplasm. Brain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Nucleus

    解説

  • 42

    Compose of rRNA and protein. Site of protein synthesis in the cell. Maybe located on the endoplasmic reticulum

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • protein factory!

    答え

    • Ribosome

    解説

  • 43

    Folded membrane within an outer membrane surrounded by a double membrane. Breakdown carbonhybred contains ribosome and help own DNA converts energy Stored in food into usable for work Produce ATP

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Produce energy

    答え

    • Mitocondria

    解説

  • 44

    ONly found in plant and algal cells Bounded by double membrane Inner membrane infolded - forms disc-like scas, thylakoids, which forms~~ Tylakoid contain chorophyill

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Chloroplast

    解説

  • 45

    contain digestive enzyme within single membrane Membrane bound vesicles (not in plants) Produced by the Golgi apparatus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Digestion

    答え

    • Lysosome

    解説

  • 46

    Involve in some protein production protein folding, quality control and despatch Add sugar/ grycoprotein covered with ribosome

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    解説

  • 47

    Associated with the production and metabolism of fats and steroid hormon. No ribosome sythesis of lipids and breakdown of toxic substance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Detox Lipids

    答え

    • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    解説

  • 48

    Recieve protein from the rough Endoplasmatic retium modify protein and lipids package proteins into vesicles protein to other organelles or out of the cell

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • receiving, processing, packaging and shipping

    答え

    • Godgi Apparatus

    解説

  • 49

    Sac of fluid surrounded by a membrane Storage of water products Development of turgor pressure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • turgor pressure 膨圧

    答え

    • Vacuoles (えきほう)

    解説

    Vacuoles in plants are much larger than those of animals

  • 50

    Both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain bacterial type DNA and can replicate themselves upon signals from the nucleus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Endosymbolic theory

    解説

  • 51

    Cytoskeleton

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 細胞骨格

    解説

  • 52

    DNA is split by enzymes and a complimentary RNA strand is synthesized Transcript or Translate?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Transcript

    解説

  • 53

    RIbosome remove RNA from the nucleus and "read" it to synthesize protein. Transcription or translation?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Translation

    解説

  • 54

    DNA is read in codons to form chains of Amino Acids Transcription or translation?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Translation

    解説

  • 55

    RNA is transported to a ribosome to form chain of Amino Acid Transcription or translation?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Translation

    解説

  • 56

    What is a gamete?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Sex cell (sperm or organs)

    解説

  • 57

    How many pairs of chromosomes are in the human body?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 23

    解説

  • 58

    How do sex cells compare to normal body cells

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Sex cells have half as many chromosomes as normal body cells Sex cells are created by meiosi

    解説

  • 59

    Gametes are made in which process?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Meiosis

    解説

  • 60

    Have a single stand of circular DNA Have ribosomes Are generally smaller than eukaryotes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Prokaryote

    解説

  • 61

    Which one has a membrane-bound nucleus? Prokaryotes or eukaryotes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Eukaryotes

    解説

  • 62

    When a change in an RNA sequence codon does not affect the result that is made. Mutation doesn't change the function of the protein, it codes for the same amino acid

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neutral mutation/ silent mutation

    解説

  • 63

    Blood type is an example of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Codominance

    解説

  • 64

    Men can be carriers for a sex linked gene True/ False

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • False

    解説

    sex linkage gene; located on the sexchromosomes 遺伝子が性染色体のなかにあること それによる形質は一方の性に多く現れる

  • 65

    Where does translation take place?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • in the cytoplasm

    解説

  • 66

    What is the charge on DNA?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Negative

    解説

  • 67

    How many pairs of autosomal chromosomes do human have?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 22

    解説

  • 68

    What can you always assume about the genotype of a child of 1 parent with a dominant phenotype and recessive phenotype of the same trait.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • They will have at least 1 recessive

    解説

  • 69

    No humans are identical except for

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Monozygotic twins

    解説

  • 70

    After sequencing a molecule of DNA, you discover that 20 of the bases are cytosine (C). What pancetage of the bases would you except to be guanine (G)? what percentage of the bases would you except to be thymine (T)?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • G 20 T 30

    解説

  • 71

    DNA to RNA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Transcription

    解説

  • 72

    RNA to Protein

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • translation

    解説

  • 73

    How many nucleotides are necessary to code for a protein that is 10 amino acid long?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 300

    解説

    3 nuclei type 1 protein

  • 74

    Carrier

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Hetero, you have a recessive gene

    解説

  • 75

    Which have more chromosomes Eukaryote or prokaryote

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Eukaryote

    解説

  • 76

    Combining a series of specific observation into generation to create a hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Specific to general

    答え

    • Inductive reasoning

    解説

  • 77

    The involves using a general principle to predict an expected observation using if/ then statements

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • If vitamin C decreases the risk of catching a cold, then people who take in additional vitamin C get less colds.

    答え

    • Deductive reasoning

    解説

    推論による

  • 78

    Steps of the scientific method

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. observation, 2. causal question, 3, hypothesis, 4. prediction, 5. test, 6, conclusion, 7. publish

    解説

  • 79

    Only way to determine causation is

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Through the collection of experimental data

    解説

  • 80

    The belief that living things can come from no-living things

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • It was once thought to be true, but is known to be false

    答え

    • Spontaneous generation

    解説

    some scientists with their combined experiments proved the theory of spontaneous generation to be false and helped develop the cell theory

  • 81

    Cell theory includes (3)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • All living things are composed of at least one cell The cell is the most basic unit of life Cells arise from preexisting cell

    解説

  • 82

    ____ cells are 10 times larger than bacteria

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • plant

    解説

  • 83

    No organized nucleus No organelles

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Prokaryotic cell

    解説

  • 84

    Separate nucleus and cytoplasm Organelles

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Eukaryotic cell

    解説

  • 85

    Definition of life 6

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • growth movement reproduction Response to external environmental stimulation Metabolism

    解説

    Exception - Mitochondoria and chloroplasts have their own DNA and can replicate their own - viruses

  • 86

    Which organelle functions in cellular respiration

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Mitochondria

    解説

  • 87

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum serves to

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • modify and process proteins

    解説

  • 88

    Has digestive enzyme Is not found in plant cells can cause genetic disease

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Lyssome

    解説

  • 89

    What is endosymbiotic theory and which organelles is it relevant?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • THeory of endosymbiosis explains the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria and their double membranes Mitochondria,chloroplast

    解説

  • 90

    The human body has __ times more foreign cells in and on it than human cells

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 10

    解説

  • 91

    Which area of the body is a hub for foreign microbes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Mouth

    解説

  • 92

    Where can you find microbes?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • 4つ

    答え

    • Mouth Nose skin gut

    解説

  • 93

    3 shapes of bacteria Name

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • カプセル:bacillus マーブル:coccus コルクスクリュー;spirillus

    解説

  • 94

    6 similarities between prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. genetic material 2. cell membrane 3. cytosol (細胞質気質) 4. contain nucleic acids, protein, carbohydrates and lipids 5. ribosome 6. use similar reactions for storing energy and metabolic activities (ex: building protein

    解説

  • 95

    A region that contains the single, circular DNA molecule in Cytoplasm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Nucleoid

    解説

  • 96

    Small accessory rings of DNA in cytoplasm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • plasmids

    解説

  • 97

    semifluid solution - bounded by plasma membrane - contains water, inorganic and organic molecules, and enzyme

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Cytoplasm

    解説

  • 98

    In ____ the daughter cell is identical to the parent cell only one parent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Asexual reproduction

    解説

  • 99

    what reproduction? - gametes are combined from two parents - offspring are genetically different from one another and the parents

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sexual reproduction

    解説

  • 100

    What are the three main stages of the cell cycle?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • interphase, Mitosis, and cytokinesis 1.DNA replicates 2. he copied chromosomes are moved into daughter nuclei - Mitosis occurs in somatic or body cells 3. The cell is split into 2 daughter cells

    解説

  • 101

    Cell membrane

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • composed of phosphilipid bilayer with embedded proteins selectively permeale keep the cell contains distinct from the environment Vital to a living

    解説

  • 102

    cytoskelton

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • connects all the cell parts move substances and organells around the cell and actively describe as trafficking

    解説

  • 103

    Space where food and chemical are stored

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • vacules

    解説

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