zuknow learn together

新しい教材を作成

GMAT formal logic

カード 34枚 作成者: Kenny15 (作成日: 2013/12/23)

  • Formal Logic

解説面  クリックしてカードを裏返す

アプリをダウンロードして、このコンテンツを学習しよう! AppStore / Google Play

教材の説明:

詳細はありません

公開範囲:

公開

  • このエントリーをはてなブックマークに追加
  • 1

    Formal Logic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A standard way a translating relationships into symbols, and then making inferences from those symbolized relationships.

    解説

  • 2

    Some

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • at least one, possibly all. To diagram simply place the word some between the two elements

    解説

  • 3

    Some Are Not

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • At least one is not, possibly all are not.

    解説

  • 4

    Example: Some Xs are not Ys.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • To diagram simply place the word some between the two elements, and negate the second element

    解説

  • 5

    Not All

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Equivalent to some are not. To diagram simply place the word some between the two elements, and negate the second element

    解説

  • 6

    Some Relationship Indicators

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • some, at least some, at least one, few, a number, several, part of, a portion

    解説

  • 7

    Most

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a majority, possibly all. To diagram simply place most between two elements, and place an arrow under the word pointing to the second element

    解説

  • 8

    Most are not

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the majority are not, possibly all are not. To diagram place the word most between two elements, place an arrow under the word most pointing at the second element, and negate the second element

    解説

  • 9

    Most Relationship Indicators

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • most, a majority, more than half, almost all, usually, typically

    解説

  • 10

    Contrapositives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • There is NO contrapositive for some and most statements. Only all arrow statements have contrapositives. Some and Most do not necessarily encompass a whole group, so they do not. All (Numerically)

    解説

  • 11

    All (Numerically)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 100

    解説

  • 12

    Most (Numerically)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 51-100 (a majority)

    解説

  • 13

    Some Are Not (Numerically)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 0-99 (also known as not all)

    解説

  • 14

    Most Are Not (Numerically)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 0-49

    解説

  • 15

    Some (Numerically)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1-100 (at least one)

    解説

  • 16

    None (Numerically)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 0

    解説

  • 17

    Reversible Relationships

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • none, some, double arrow

    解説

  • 18

    Non-Reversible Relationships

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • All, most

    解説

  • 19

    Some Are Not Reversibility

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Can be reversed, but must be very careful.

    解説

  • 20

    Additive Inference

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • result from combining multiple statements through a common term and then deducing a relationship that does not include the common term. These are often the correct answer choices in formal logic problems.

    解説

  • 21

    Inherent Inferences

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • follow from a single statement, and are inferences that are known to be true simply from the relationship between the two variables.

    解説

  • 22

    If all A's are B's, then it must also be true that most A's are B's and some A's are B's.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Since some A's are B's is reversible, then it must also be true that Some B's are A's.

    解説

  • 23

    Rules of Diagram Creation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1) Always combine like terms. Each variable should appear only one time, 2) There is no traditional direction in logic

    解説

  • 24

    Making Formal Logic Inferences Step 1

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Start by looking at the ends of chains - variables that are linked in only one relationship are "open" variables and are easier to analyze

    解説

  • 25

    Step 2

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The vast majority of additive inferences require either an all or none statement somewhere in the chain

    解説

  • 26

    Step 3

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • When looking to make inferences, do not start with a variable involved in a double-not arrow relationship and then try to "go across" the double not-arrow

    解説

  • 27

    Step 4

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • To make an inference with a variable involved in a "some" relationship, an arrow leading away from the "some" relationship is required. When making these inferences consider two elements: a) the weakest link in the chain, and b) the presence of relevant negativity

    解説

  • 28

    Step 5

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The "Most" Train - works very similarly to the step above, but produces stronger inferences. The critical difference is that because most has direction, you can only follow the most arrow to make a most inference. If you go "against" the arrow, the relationship will devolve to "some," which is an inherent inference.

    解説

  • 29

    Step 6

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Arrows and Double Not Arrows - any combination of an arrow and a double-not arrow in succession will yield an inference (although inherent inferences may be needed to make the inference)

    解説

  • 30

    Step 7

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Use inherent inferences. Don't forget to use "some" to go "against" an all or most arrow and make inferences accordingly

    解説

  • 31

    Step 8

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Watch for the relevant negativity - this means that either the first or last term is negated, or there is a double not arrow in the chain

    解説

  • 32

    Step 9

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Some and Most Combinations - in general two consecutive somes or two consecutive mosts, or a some and a most will not yield an inference. The only exception to this rule is when there is middle variable that has two most trains leading away from it. at this point you can conclude that some of the one end of one most train is some of the other end of the other most train.

    解説

  • 33

    Step 10

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Analyzing compound statements - recycle your inferences to see if they can be used to create further inferences, and make sure to check the closed variables for additional inference possibilities

    解説

  • 34

    Step 11

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Once an inference bridge is built, it does not need to be made again. If an inference can be made from one side of the relationship, that is enough to establish the inference even if the inference cannot be made from the other side.

    解説

56806

セットの学習コンテンツ

公開初月で
60,000
ダウン
ロード!

無料アプリはこちら!

英単語をウェブサイト
からzuknowに簡単登録

覚えたい単語を選択するだけ!
簡単にzuknowに登録することが
できます

Get the free Chrome Extension

トップ