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GMAT Phrase

カード 86枚 作成者: Kenny15 (作成日: 2013/12/23)

  • Phrase

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  • 1

    Phrase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a group of words that does not have a sentence structure. Eg. Demanding civil rights....

    解説

  • 2

    Clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a group of words that does not contain a subject and a verb. Every sentence has at least one independent clause; that is, a clause that cannot stand alone

    解説

  • 3

    Run-on

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two or more clauses connected inappropriately

    解説

  • 4

    Coordination conjunctions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used to fix run-ons: and for or nor but yet

    解説

  • 5

    Adverbial conjunctions to fix run-ons

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • must be preceded by a period or semicolon: however, then, besides, hence, moreover, therefor, consequently, nevertheless, thus, furthermore, otherwise, still

    解説

  • 6

    Subordinating conjunction to fix run-ons

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • although, though, so, since, while, because, until, if, where, after, unless, before, than, thereby

    解説

  • 7

    Relative clause to fix run-ons

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • begins with who, that, or which and relate to the information in one clause to the subject of another clause

    解説

  • 8

    Sentence fragments

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sentence that does not contain at least one independent clause

    解説

  • 9

    Subordinate clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • while many people...

    解説

  • 10

    Intervening phrase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when the subject of a sentence is followed by a phrase or relative clause, the phrase or clause is not part of the subject

    解説

  • 11

    Appositives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases that are placed next to nouns to further describe them. Eg. John Smith, the man who led the British to America

    解説

  • 12

    Compound subjects

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two plus nouns joined by and

    解説

  • 13

    Phrase that do not create compound subjects

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • along with, together, in addition to, as well as, besides

    解説

  • 14

    When words in the subject position are connected by either... or, neither... nor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the verb agrees with the last word in the pair

    解説

  • 15

    Infinitives and gerunds used as subjects

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • singular

    解説

  • 16

    Modifying phrase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • refers to the noun or pronoun immediately following or preceding the phrase eg. "sifting the sand, prospectors...."

    解説

  • 17

    Dangling modifier

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a modifying phrase that does not clearly refer to any word in the sentence, most commonly at the beginning of the sentence. To be correct, must refer to the word directly following it. Eg. "desiring to free his readers from superstition, the theories of... (incorrect)

    解説

  • 18

    He antecedent of a pronoun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the word to which the pronoun refers. Every sentence with a pronoun must clearly refer to one and only one antecedent

    解説

  • 19

    Personal pronouns

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used to refer to people and things I me you he she him her it we us they them one

    解説

  • 20

    Reflexive pronouns

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used in relative clauses who which where whom that whose

    解説

  • 21

    Possessives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • my mine your yours his her hers their one's its

    解説

  • 22

    The antecedent must be a specific noun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • eg "to plaster a wall, a mason puts it..." (wrong, to plaster is an infinitive); Thompson questioned Douglass's authorship of the narrative, claiming that he was too uneducated to have written it. (wrong, Douglass's is possessive)

    解説

  • 23

    Do it (wrong)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • do so eg. It is common for a native of NY who has never driven a car to move to another part of the country to do so (not it)

    解説

  • 24

    One and you

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • either is acceptable, but never mix one and you, one and yours, or your and one's; one and he or she is correct

    解説

  • 25

    Never use one

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to refer to any antecedent except one eg. A person should leave a light on if one want to give impression...

    解説

  • 26

    The number

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • always singular the number of cookies was...

    解説

  • 27

    A number

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • always plural eg. A number of turkeys were...

    解説

  • 28

    1st person subjective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • I, we

    解説

  • 29

    2nd person subjective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • you

    解説

  • 30

    3rd person subjective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • he, she, it, they, one

    解説

  • 31

    Relative pronouns subjective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • who, that, which

    解説

  • 32

    1st person objective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • me, us

    解説

  • 33

    2nd person objective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • you

    解説

  • 34

    3rd person objective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • him, her, it, them, one

    解説

  • 35

    Relative pronouns objective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • whom, that, which

    解説

  • 36

    When to use subjective case pronouns

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • for the subject of a sentence; after is; in comparisons between subjects of understood verbs (Gary is taller that I (am))

    解説

  • 37

    When to use objective case pronouns

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • object of a verb; object of a preposition; after infinitives and gerunds; in comparison between objects of understood verbs (she calls you more than she calls me)

    解説

  • 38

    Who or whom?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Isolate the relative pronoun in its own clause 2. Ask yourself: who or whom... ? 3. Answer with ordinary personal pronoun such as "he did" or "I'll invite him" 4. He- use who, him- use whom

    解説

  • 39

    Verbal

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • formed from a verb but does not function as a verb. To be correct, the sentence must also contain a verb; verbal alone in a sentence won't do

    解説

  • 40

    Participle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • usually ends in ing or ed and is used as an adjective in a sentence eg. Let sleeping dogs lie; it's difficult to calm a frightened child

    解説

  • 41

    Gerund

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • always ending in ing, used as a noun, but it must be in the possessive eg. I was surprised at his acting like... ; Can be the subject eg. Skiing

    解説

  • 42

    Infinitive

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the basic form of a verb, usually preceded by to

    解説

  • 43

    Active or passive?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Generally active unless absolutely necessary

    解説

  • 44

    Present tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • describes something occurring at the present time

    解説

  • 45

    Past tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • describes an event or state that took place at a specific time in the past and is now over and done with

    解説

  • 46

    Future tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • describes actions or actions expected in the future. Eg. Will begin..., am going to...

    解説

  • 47

    Anticipatory future

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • usually used with verbs of motion such as some, go, arrive, depart, leave eg. The flight arrives at...; the senator is leaving...; or in two-clause sentences when one verb is in the regular future tense

    解説

  • 48

    Present perfect tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • actions or states that started in the past and continue into the present time. Eg. Hawaii has been a state since 1959; Britain has not always been an island. Also used for actions or states that happened a number of times in the past and may happen again in the future eg. Language scholars has awarded a prize every year since 1983. Also used for something that happened at an unspecified time in the past eg. Susan had written an essay about horses

    解説

  • 49

    Past perfect tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used to represent past actions or states that were completed before other past states or actions. The more recent past event is expressed in the simple past, and the earlier past event is expressed in the past perfect. Sometimes GMAT prefers before or after

    解説

  • 50

    Future perfect tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a future state or event that will take place before another future event. Use for the earlier of two future events eg. By the time eg. By the time the next election is held, candidates will have debated at least once

    解説

  • 51

    Having + past participial

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when the information refers to an earlier time than the verb eg. Having been a French colony, Senegal is a Francophone nation

    解説

  • 52

    To have + infinitive (past participle)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when the information refers to an earlier time than the verb eg. I'm glad to have met you

    解説

  • 53

    Moods

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the forms of verbs that reflect the ways the action or condition conveyed by the verb is thought of by the speaker

    解説

  • 54

    Indicative

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • represents something as fact

    解説

  • 55

    Imperative

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • conveys a command- the subject is understood to be you

    解説

  • 56

    Subjunctive

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • represents a wish, probability, though, condition contrary to fact, or requirement. "Were" is in subjunctive form in "I wish I were a rich man" (but I'm not a rich man). Use subjunctive for conditional sentences (if-then). If Shakespeare's manuscripts were to be discovered, (then) the texts would be more clear; if Cleopatra's nose had been shorter, the face of the world would have changed

    解説

  • 57

    Subjunctive of requirement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used after verbs such as ask, demand, insist, suggest, or after expressions of requirement, suggestion or demand. In the base form of infinitives without "to"

    解説

  • 58

    Correlative conjunctions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • both...and; either...or; neither...nor; not one... but (also). Be sure to but these immediately before the terms they're coordinating

    解説

  • 59

    Parallelism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • watch out for: keeping prepositions consistent when listing things; correlative conjunctions; verbs in compared ideas must be in same form (eg. to ski-to rappel); pair gerunds with gerunds and infinitives with infinitives; active with active and passive with passive

    解説

  • 60

    Incomplete comparisons are corrected by inserting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • those of, those in, those at, that of, that in, that at, etc. or by using the possessive. Also, he danced better than any OTHER man in the world

    解説

  • 61

    How to check for faulty ellipsis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • complete each component idea of the sentence. Unless each part of the sentence can stand alone, you've found a case of faulty ellipsis

    解説

  • 62

    Grammatically negative words

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • barely, hardly, rarely, seldom, without, scarcely

    解説

  • 63

    Accept, Except

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Accept is a verb that means "to agree to receive something". Except is either a preposition that means "other than, or but," or a verb meaning "to omit or leave out."

    解説

  • 64

    Affect, Effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Affect is usually a verb meaning "to influence." Effect is usually a noun that "indicates or achieves a result."

    解説

  • 65

    Among, Between

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Among is used with more than two items. Between is usually used with two items.

    解説

  • 66

    Assure, Insure, Ensure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Assure means "to convince" or "to guarantee" and usually takes a direct object. Insure means "to guard against loss." Ensure means "to make certain."

    解説

  • 67

    Because, Since

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Because means "for the reason that." Since implies "time," either continuous or not, in addition to "reason."

    解説

  • 68

    Compare to, Compare with

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Compare to means "assert a likeness." Compare with means "analyze for similarities and differences."

    解説

  • 69

    Complement, Compliment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Complement implies "something that completes or adds to" something else. A compliment is "flattery or praise."

    解説

  • 70

    Farther, Further

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Farther refers to distance. Further indicates "additional degree, time, or quantity." It can also be used as a verb.

    解説

  • 71

    Fewer, Less

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Fewer refers to units or individuals that can be counted. Less refers to mass or bulk that can't be counted.

    解説

  • 72

    Imply, Infer

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Imply means "to suggest." Infer means "to deduce," "to guess," or "to conclude."

    解説

  • 73

    Its, It's

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Its is the possessive form of "it." It's is the contraction of "it is."

    解説

  • 74

    Lay, Lie

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Lay means "to put" or "to place," and requires a direct object to complete its meaning. Lie means "to recline, rest, or stay" or "to take a position of rest." This verb cannot take a direct object. The past tense of lie is lay, so use extra caution if you see these words on the GMAT. Example: On sunny days, our lazy cat will lie on the porch and bask in the warmth of the sunlight. Example: Yesterday, our lazy cat lay in the sun for most of the afternoon.

    解説

  • 75

    Like, Such as

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Like indicates similarity. Such as indicates an example or examples.

    解説

  • 76

    Number, Amount

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Number is used when the items can be counted. Amount denotes quantity.

    解説

  • 77

    Principal, Principle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Principal is a noun meaning "the head of a school or an organization." Principal can also be used as an adjective to mean "first" or "leading." Principle is a noun meaning "a basic truth or law."

    解説

  • 78

    Than, Then

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Than is a conjunction used in comparison. Then is an adverb denoting time.

    解説

  • 79

    That, Which

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • That introduces an essential clause in a sentence. Commas are not required before the word that. Which is best used to introduce a clause containing nonessential and descriptive information. Commas are required before the word which if is used in this way. Which can also be used to introduce an essential clause to avoid repeating the word that in the sentence.

    解説

  • 80

    There, Their, They're

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • There is an adverb specifying location. Their is a possessive pronoun. They're is a contraction of "they are."

    解説

  • 81

    Whether, If

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Whether should be used when listing alternatives. If should be used when referring to a future possibility.

    解説

  • 82

    Because

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • instead, use the reason is that

    解説

  • 83

    Each other, one another

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • each other is used to refer to two things. One another is used for three or more

    解説

  • 84

    Ingenious, ingenuous

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ingenious means intelligent, ingenuous means innocent or naïve

    解説

  • 85

    Regard

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • regard as, not regard to be

    解説

  • 86

    To be able

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • don't use a for of to be able preceding the passive form of an infinitive. Eg. My old tv cannot (NOT is not able to) be repaired

    解説

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