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psychology ch13

カード 48枚 作成者: Jared Woodward (作成日: 2014/11/06)

  • social psychology

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  • 1

    social psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • study of how people influence other behavior , bellefs, and attitudes

    解説

  • 2

    social comparison theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • we seek to evalute our abilities and belifs by commparing then with those of others

    解説

  • 3

    humans as a social species

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • we are predisposed to form intimate interpersonal networks that are only so large

    解説

  • 4

    need to belong theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • we have a biologically based need for interpersonal connections literally hurts to be isolated

    解説

  • 5

    Fundamental attribution error

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • attributions entail assigning causes to behavior internal vs external influence

    解説

  • 6

    conformity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure

    解説

  • 7

    solomon asch experiments

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • classically demonstrated conformity

    解説

  • 8

    causes of increase of conformity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • unanimity or agreement size of majority low self esteem Asian culture more likely to conform

    解説

  • 9

    causes to lower conformity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • if only one other person differed from the majority low self esteem

    解説

  • 10

    Deindividuation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the tendency of people to engage in atypical behavior when stripped of their usual identities

    解説

  • 11

    groupthink

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking. Groups sometimes become so intent on ensuring that everyone agrees with everyone else that they lose their capacity to evaluate issues objectively.

    解説

  • 12

    group polarization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tendency of a group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members.

    解説

  • 13

    obedience

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • adherence to instructions from those of higher authority. The Milgrim Experiment- subjects were to shock others under the authority of experimenter

    解説

  • 14

    Difference between conformity and obedience

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • conformity is influence from peers while obedience is influence from others

    解説

  • 15

    altruism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • help others for unselfish reasons, opposite of egoistic

    解説

  • 16

    Attitude and behavior

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an attitude is a belief that includes emotional component, attitudes only moderately correlate with behavior

    解説

  • 17

    cognitive dissonance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • unpleasant mental experience of tension resulting from two conflicting thoughts or beliefs

    解説

  • 18

    self perception theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • we acquire our attitudes by observing our behavior

    解説

  • 19

    impression management theory-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • we don’t really change our attitudes, but report that we have so that our behaviors appear consistent with our attitudes.

    解説

  • 20

    personality

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • people’s typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving

    解説

  • 21

    nomothetic approach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • strived to understand personality by identifying general laws that govern behavior of all individuals

    解説

  • 22

    idiographic approach-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • strives to understand personality by identifying the unique configuration of characteristics and life history experiences within a person

    解説

  • 23

    Shared environmental factors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • experiences that make individuals within the same family more alike

    解説

  • 24

    Nonshared environmental factors-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • experiences that make individuals within the same family less alike

    解説

  • 25

    Sigmund Freud-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • neurologist, founder of psychotherapy, first developed comprehensive theory of personality

    解説

  • 26

    id

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • basic instincts, strive for immediate gratification

    解説

  • 27

    ego

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • principle decision maker, reality principle

    解説

  • 28

    super ego

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • our sense of morality, sense of right and wrong usually instilled by family

    解説

  • 29

    social learning theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • learning is important, but thinking and how we interpret our environments also plays a crucial role

    解説

  • 30

    reciprocal determinism-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tendency for people to mutually influence each other’s behavior.

    解説

  • 31

    locus of control

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • extent to which people believe that reinforcers and punishers lie inside or outside their control

    解説

  • 32

    internal locus of control-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • life events are due highly to person’s individual efforts and personal characteristics

    解説

  • 33

    external locus of control-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • life events are products of chance and fate

    解説

  • 34

    Big five-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analysis of personality measures

    解説

  • 35

    Big five traits

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Openness to Experience- intellectually curious and unconventional in their interests Conscientiousness- careful and responsible extraversion- social and lively agreeableness- sociable and easy to get along with neuroticism- tense and moody

    解説

  • 36

    Tendencies vs Adaptations-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Basic tendencies are underlying personality traits character adaptations are behavioral manifestations.

    解説

  • 37

    mental illness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • pattern of behavior that causes significant distress, uncommon in society, and harms daily life functions

    解説

  • 38

    Koro

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • involves believing your genitals are receding into your abdomen

    解説

  • 39

    Amok

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • marked by episodes of intense sadness and deep thought followed by uncontrolled behavior.

    解説

  • 40

    DSM-5

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, a system that contains the criteria for mental disorders, contains info on disorder prevalence

    解説

  • 41

    DSM Criticism-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • some diagnosis may be invalid, high level of comorbidity (two diagnosis within the same person) , relies on categorial model vs dimensional model

    解説

  • 42

    primary sex characteristics-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sexual organs present at birth and directly involved in human production

    解説

  • 43

    secondary sex characteristics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sexual organs and traits that develop at puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction

    解説

  • 44

    gender-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the psychological aspects of being male or female

    解説

  • 45

    gender roles-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • culture’s expectations for masculine and feminine behavior

    解説

  • 46

    gender stereotype-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • assigning characteristics to someone based on nothing more than being male or female

    解説

  • 47

    androgynous

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • people whose personalities reflect characteristics of both male and female, regardless of gender

    解説

  • 48

    social learning theory-

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • gender identity is formed through reinforcement of appropriate gender behavior as well as imitation of gender models

    解説

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