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Positive Psychology Exam 2

カード 78枚 作成者: Ellen (作成日: 2013/12/05)

  • Difference Between Spirituality and Religion

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  • 1

    Difference Between Spirituality and Religion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - SPIRITUALITY: to search for meaning in life through self-transcendence, the need to relate to something greater than oneself, does not depend on an institutional context.

    解説

  • 2

    Difference Between Spirituality and Religion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - RELIGION: when this spiritual search is connected to formal religious institutions.

    解説

  • 3

    Plateau Experience

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • All aspects of work take on a sacred quality

    解説

  • 4

    Resacralization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A restoring of the sense of sacred to the ordinary world

    解説

  • 5

    Religion and Optimism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Religion increases optimism because of its certainty... religion is more amenable to optimism than is science, which is tentative and critical by nature

    解説

  • 6

    Religion and Virtue

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Most widely influential religions of our time has shown to endorse core virtues... near universal recognition of praise of the virtues of wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence.

    解説

  • 7

    Types of Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. GLOBAL MEANING: a search for both order and purpose

    解説

  • 8

    Types of Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. PERSONAL MEANING: finding one's purpose in life, depends on global meaning, person fits into the order and coherence of the universe.

    解説

  • 9

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Pursuing greater harmony, coherence, and congruence among the carious aspects of self-identity and goals in life

    解説

  • 10

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. Developing a consistent life scheme

    解説

  • 11

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. Creating congruence between current situations and overall goals

    解説

  • 12

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. Giving service to others and dedication to a worthy cause

    解説

  • 13

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 5. Creativity

    解説

  • 14

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 6. Living life as fully as possible

    解説

  • 15

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 7. Suffering

    解説

  • 16

    8 Ways to Find Meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 8. Spiritual experiences

    解説

  • 17

    Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Religiousness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - EXTRINSIC: religion of comfort and social convention, a self-serving, instrumental approach shaped to suit oneself (attends church to be seen by others, to raise stature in community, fit within social expectations)

    解説

  • 18

    Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Religiousness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - correlates with prejudice, dogmatism, trait anxiety, fear of death

    解説

  • 19

    Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Religiousness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - INTRINSIC: sense of meaning and purpose, regardless of social benefits that might accrue... regular participation in church activities, personal prayer or meditation, and sacrificial service to others with recognition. 

    解説

  • 20

    Extrinsic Versus Intrinsic Religiousness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - correlates with positive health

    解説

  • 21

    Circle of Life

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • idea is to move with circle of life until the change process becomes natural and transcendence and enlightenment are achieved.

    解説

  • 22

    Meditation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "changes brain activity towards the patterns associated with positive moods, helps increase factors associated with positive mental health such as empathy, creativity and self-actualization - experienced meditators have found it induces bliss, ineffability and a sense of selflessness."

    解説

  • 23

    Basic Tenets of Confucianism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - leadership and education central to morality

    解説

  • 24

    Basic Tenets of Confucianism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Confucius teaching collected in many books, most famous is the I Ching (book of changes)

    解説

  • 25

    Basic Tenets of Confucianism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - quotes that encourage caring for the welfare of others 

    解説

  • 26

    Basic Tenets of Confucianism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Attainment of virtue is at the core (five virtues)

    解説

  • 27

    Basic Tenets of Taoism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Lao-Tzu says followers must live according to the Tao ("the way")

    解説

  • 28

    Basic Tenets of Taoism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Tao is the energy that surrounds and flows through all things

    解説

  • 29

    Basic Tenets of Taoism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - cannot be taught, must experience the Way for oneself by fully participating in life

    解説

  • 30

    Basic Tenets of Taoism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Yin and Yang: balance and harmony in life

    解説

  • 31

    Basic Tenets of Buddhism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - life is constant change, unhappiness stems from craving security

    解説

  • 32

    Basic Tenets of Buddhism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - attachment: desire to insure permanent satisfaction and control, causes us to suffer for fear of losing it

    解説

  • 33

    Basic Tenets of Buddhism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - accepting the reality of change = happiness

    解説

  • 34

    Basic Tenets of Buddhism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - importance of virtues

    解説

  • 35

    Basic Tenets of Hinduism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - no specific founder or beginning

    解説

  • 36

    Basic Tenets of Hinduism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - grounded in a way of action, rather than written text

    解説

  • 37

    Basic Tenets of Hinduism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -emphasize interconnectedness between individuals

    解説

  • 38

    Basic Tenets of Hinduism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - reincarnations occurs when one needs further enlightenment (failure to achieve ultimate knowledge), does not when highest knowledge possible is achieved

    解説

  • 39

    Basic Tenets of Hinduism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - quest for life is to attain ultimate self-knowledge

    解説

  • 40

    Basic Tenets of Hinduism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - belief in karma

    解説

  • 41

    Three Differences Between Eastern and Western Perspectives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Value Systems: Individualist cultures (individual is more important) & collectivist cultures (group is more important)

    解説

  • 42

    Three Differences Between Eastern and Western Perspectives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. Orientation to Time: western orientated toward the future, eastern more oriented towards respect of the past

    解説

  • 43

    Three Differences Between Eastern and Western Perspectives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. Thought Processes: westerners think they can control events if we know the rules, eastern thinks the world is a circle, goal is balance between unhappiness and happiness

    解説

  • 44

    Percentage of Americans Unsatisfied With Their Work

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 50%

    解説

  • 45

    Frequency vs. Intensity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - research shows that the frequency of positive emotions at work tends to be more important than the intensity of the positive emotion

    解説

  • 46

    Three Ways People View Their Work

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. A Job: focus in on the necessity of work and earning a living (meaning in providing for need)

    解説

  • 47

    Three Ways People View Their Work

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. A Career: a way to create achievement motivation, stimulate the need for competition, or enhance prestige and satisfaction

    解説

  • 48

    Three Ways People View Their Work

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. A Calling: believing that their work was a source of personal fulfillment and has a socially useful purpose (contribution to society)

    解説

  • 49

    Hackman & Oldham's Three Happiness Conditions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Draw out a variety of talents and skills

    解説

  • 50

    Hackman & Oldham's Three Happiness Conditions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. Employee complete a task from beginning to end (sees final result)

    解説

  • 51

    Hackman & Oldham's Three Happiness Conditions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. Producing work with a significant impact

    解説

  • 52

    Hodges & Clifton Strengths vs. Weakness Study

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - majority of respondents across countries favored "improving your weaknesses over building your strengths"

    解説

  • 53

    Strengths Based Approach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "focus of strengths and shape job activities around it 1. identification of talents (increasing employees knowledge of own talents)"

    解説

  • 54

    Strengths Based Approach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "focus of strengths and shape job activities around it 2. integration of talents (learns to define themselves according to talents)"

    解説

  • 55

    Strengths Based Approach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "focus of strengths and shape job activities around it 3. actual behavioral change (learns to attribute any successes to their talents)"

    解説

  • 56

    Toyota NA Parts Co's Productivity Study

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "- gave employees strength finder surveys & attended lunchtime sessions explained strength based approach & managers took 4 day course. - 6% increase in productivity"

    解説

  • 57

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Opportunity for personal control - a chance for input

    解説

  • 58

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. Opportunity for skill use

    解説

  • 59

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. Reasonable externally generated goals

    解説

  • 60

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. Variety - interesting work and a chance to learn new skills

    解説

  • 61

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 5. Environmental clarity - good feedback

    解説

  • 62

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 6. Availability of money - use social comparison

    解説

  • 63

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 7. Physical security - good working conditions

    解説

  • 64

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 8. Supportive supervision

    解説

  • 65

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 9. Opportunity for interpersonal contact

    解説

  • 66

    10 Qualities of a Positive Work Environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 10. Valued social position - provides a sense of meaning

    解説

  • 67

    5 Factors Involved in Social Well-Being

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE: degree to which people generally hold positive attitudes towards others

    解説

  • 68

    5 Factors Involved in Social Well-Being

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. SOCIAL ACTUALIZATION: belief that society can develop and grow to be better

    解説

  • 69

    5 Factors Involved in Social Well-Being

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. SOCIAL CONTRIBUTION: belief that daily activities contribute to society and valued

    解説

  • 70

    5 Factors Involved in Social Well-Being

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. SOCIAL COHERENCE: society seems understandable, predictable and logical

    解説

  • 71

    5 Factors Involved in Social Well-Being

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 5. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: person feels a part of their community

    解説

  • 72

    Definition of Community Psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Studies the person in social context and emphasizes the tole of the environment and the social world in both the creation of problems and through an emphasis on how to intervene to solve problems

    解説

  • 73

    Four Principles of Community Psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. PERSON-ENVIRONMENT FIT: fit between person and environment 

    解説

  • 74

    Four Principles of Community Psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. FOCUS ON COMPETENCIES: identifying strengths, resources, and efficiencies of people AND the environment

    解説

  • 75

    Four Principles of Community Psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. POLITICAL ACTIVISM: direct participation in political activities unusual among other psych fields

    解説

  • 76

    Four Principles of Community Psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. PREVENTION: more heavily involved in prevention that most areas of psychology

    解説

  • 77

    Empowerment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The process of enabling people who are marginalized or underprivileged to gain a measure of personal and political power

    解説

  • 78

    Empowerment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - To be empowered is to take charge of one's life and feel a sense of self-efficacy, competence, and self-determination

    解説

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