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Psych Test 1

カード 78枚 作成者: Ellen (作成日: 2013/12/05)

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  • 1

    learning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • durable change in behavior or knowledge due to experience

    解説

  • 2

    memory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • means by which past experience is drawn on to guide or direct behavior or thoughts in the present; conscious effort recall of things "Classical (Pavlonian) Conditioning (involuntary responses):

    解説

  • 3

    - who?"

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Ivan Pavlov, Russian digestive physiologist "Classical (Pavlonian) Conditioning (involuntary responses):

    解説

  • 4

    - describe this learning?"

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - organism learns a predicative relationship btwn 2 external stimuli; presentation of 1st specific stimulus predicts (almost guarantees) presentation of 2nd specific stimulus

    解説

  • 5

    acquisition - define?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - initial learning of predictive relationship btwn stimuli

    解説

  • 6

    acquisition - part of what kind of learning?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - part of Pavlonian conditioning

    解説

  • 7

    unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - define?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - stimulus which already has meaning to an organism and generates a response on its own (UCR- unconditioned response)

    解説

  • 8

    unconditioned stimulus (UCS) - Pavlov's example

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - dog salivates (UCR) AFTER food is presented

    解説

  • 9

    conditioned stimulus (CS) - define?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - as organism acquires predictive relationship, CS will ellicit CR from organism in preparation of the UCS BEFORE the UCS is presented

    解説

  • 10

    conditioned stimulus (CS) - - Pavlov's example

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - a bell (CS) rung before food arrived....bell's ringing reliably predicts food.....sound of bell cause dog to salivate (CR) BEFORE food available

    解説

  • 11

    extinction - define

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "- AFTER acquisition, if CS is presented alone a lot without UCS following, the CR will eventually stop happening - extinction is not erasure or forgetting"

    解説

  • 12

    stimulus generalization -defn

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - stimuli w/ sensory qualities like CS elicits CR by mistake

    解説

  • 13

    stimulus generalization - Pavlov example

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - dog mistakes someone's keys jingling for the bell => salivation

    解説

  • 14

    stimulus discrimination

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - person w/ keys walks by often => dog learns to salivate to bell and not keys

    解説

  • 15

    stimulus discrimination

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - becomes difficult when another second bell is introduced-- dog has difficulty learning the difference compared to keys but eventually generalization to the 2nd bell (evidenced by salivation to different bell) decreases and dog can discriminate between the 2 bell sounds

    解説

  • 16

    higher order conditioning - describe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - series of CR to succession of stimuli can be chained together

    解説

  • 17

    higher order conditioning - Pavlov example

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "- previously learned CS becomes so well trained that it becomes a new UCS to a new stimulus that predicts its occurance - image of beach ball projected onto wall before bell is rung => image predicts bell which predicts food => bell becomes UCS for image which acts as new higher order - image now generates salivation as a new higher order CR"

    解説

  • 18

    Operant (Skinnerian) Conditioning (voluntary responses)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - consequences of a behavior come to guide and control occurance of that behavior

    解説

  • 19

    Operant (Skinnerian) Conditioning (voluntary responses)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - organism "happens" to the world

    解説

  • 20

    reinforcement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - increases likelihood of a response

    解説

  • 21

    reinforcement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - use of terms positive reinforcement/negative reinforcement differ in nature of stimulus as reinforcer but both INCREASE occurance of behavior

    解説

  • 22

    punishment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - when stimulus applied to DECREASE occurence of behavior (parent threaten bad child)

    解説

  • 23

    punishment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - all forms of punishment do not involve applying aversive stimulus (ex. reward omission)

    解説

  • 24

    punishment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - goal: decrease occurrence of unwanted behavior

    解説

  • 25

    reward omission

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - expected appetitive stimulus is removed/withheld

    解説

  • 26

    reward omission

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ex) parent take away cherished toy as consequence for child using swear words

    解説

  • 27

    reward omission

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - goal: decrease occurrence of unwanted behavior

    解説

  • 28

    neurotransmitter receptors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - ALL receptors have TWO separate binding sites for the transmitter (signal molecule)

    解説

  • 29

    neurotransmitter receptors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - 2 molecules of the transmitter must attach to receptor binding sites SIMULTANEOUSLY to activate receptor

    解説

  • 30

    ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - distance relatives of voltage-dependent ion channels found on axon

    解説

  • 31

    ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - receptor binding sites act as mechanism for detecting presence of transmitter

    解説

  • 32

    ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - tubes that are closed until activated

    解説

  • 33

    ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - entrance of ions cause EPSPs and IPSPs

    解説

  • 34

    ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - caled ionotropic since allow ions to pass into the neurons

    解説

  • 35

    G-protein linked (metabotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - metabotropic since do not directly cause electrical response, but cause biocmincal changes within neuron which may change neuron's metabolism

    解説

  • 36

    G-protein linked (metabotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - DOES NOT have a pore as part of receptor

    解説

  • 37

    G-protein linked (metabotropic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - when receptor activates,Gprotein becomes activated, travels membrane and changes activity of distant ion channels or membrane-bound enzymes => releases second messengers

    解説

  • 38

    second messengers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - can go from dendrite to as far as nucleus

    解説

  • 39

    second messengers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - activate other enzymes or trigger manufacture of cellular proteins

    解説

  • 40

    ionotropic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - cause EPSPs or IPSPs, the electrical signals which directly determine if an action potential will occur

    解説

  • 41

    ionotropic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - like a telegraph key sending a message

    解説

  • 42

    metabotropic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - change neuron's metabolic state

    解説

  • 43

    metabotropic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - make cell more/less sensitive to EPSPs/IPSPs making it indirectly easier/harder to trigger action potential

    解説

  • 44

    metabotropic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - like volume controls, making the message louder or fainter

    解説

  • 45

    amino acids - glutamate and GABA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • along with serotin, are most widely used and important transmitters

    解説

  • 46

    glutamate (excitatory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - most common nerotransmitter

    解説

  • 47

    glutamate (excitatory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - primary excitatory transmitter in brain

    解説

  • 48

    glutamate (excitatory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - from diet or synthesized as byproduct of Krebs

    解説

  • 49

    glutamate (excitatory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - sensory processing, learning, memory

    解説

  • 50

    GABA (inhibitory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - gamma aminobutyric acid

    解説

  • 51

    GABA (inhibitory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain

    解説

  • 52

    GABA (inhibitory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - sythesized from glutamate

    解説

  • 53

    GABA (inhibitory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - quiets nerve cells

    解説

  • 54

    GABA (inhibitory)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - learning, memory, sensory processing, sleep/waking, relief from anxiety

    解説

  • 55

    peptides

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - short proteins

    解説

  • 56

    peptides

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - if outside brain, acts as hormones

    解説

  • 57

    peptides

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - if within brain, acts as neurotransmitters

    解説

  • 58

    peptides

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ex) cholcystokinin stimulates pancreas/liver in digestive system; but in brain has roles in pain, memory, anxiety, hunger

    解説

  • 59

    agonist

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - a drug that INCREASES or facilitates activity or effect of the transmitter

    解説

  • 60

    agonist

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - direct agonist impersonates transmitter and activates receptor

    解説

  • 61

    antagonist

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - a drug that DECREASES, interferes, or blocks activity of transmitter

    解説

  • 62

    antagonist

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - direct antagonist can't impersonate receptor. It attaches itself to it but doesn't activate it

    解説

  • 63

    acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - only transmitter that needs enzymatic degradation to terminate signal

    解説

  • 64

    acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -sythesized from choline which is used as component of cell membrane and Acetyl-CoA

    解説

  • 65

    acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - broken down by AChase

    解説

  • 66

    acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • comes from cholinergic basal forebrain (BF)

    解説

  • 67

    acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - learning, memory, sleeping/waking, sensory processing

    解説

  • 68

    basal forebrain's (BF) 2 most prominent structures

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - septum

    解説

  • 69

    basal forebrain's (BF) 2 most prominent structures

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - nucleus basalis

    解説

  • 70

    monoamines (neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - share lone amino group

    解説

  • 71

    monoamines (neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - classified into catecholamines and indolamines

    解説

  • 72

    monoamines (neurotransmitter)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - tyrosine-based

    解説

  • 73

    tyrosine-based monoamines

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - basic building block for cateholamines

    解説

  • 74

    tyrosine-based monoamines

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - compounds share catechol as part of structure (bensene ring with to hydroxide groups attached)

    解説

  • 75

    dopamine (DA) (a monomine)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - sythesis- tyrosine converted to LDOPA by tyrosine hydroxylase. LDOPA is converted to dopamine by DOP Adecarboxylase

    解説

  • 76

    dopamine (DA) (a monomine)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -2 sources: substantianigra (for voluntary movements), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) for brain systems

    解説

  • 77

    norepinephrine (NE) (a monomine)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "- produced by blue spot cells first go through steps of manufacturing DA then dopamine-beta-hydroxylase converts dopamine to norepinephrine"

    解説

  • 78

    norepinephrine (NE) (a monomine)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - blue spot

    解説

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