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AP Psychology/Thinking Critically With Psychology Myers Textbook

カード 71枚 作成者: Ellen (作成日: 2013/12/05)

  • Hindsight Bias

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  • 1

    Hindsight Bias

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)

    解説

  • 2

    Critical Thinking

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

    解説

  • 3

    Theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events.

    解説

  • 4

    Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

    解説

  • 5

    Operational Definition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.

    解説

  • 6

    Replication

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

    解説

  • 7

    Case Study

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

    解説

  • 8

    Survey

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.

    解説

  • 9

    False Consensus Effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviours.

    解説

  • 10

    Population

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)

    解説

  • 11

    Random Sample

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

    解説

  • 12

    Naturalistic Observation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

    解説

  • 13

    Correlation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1.

    解説

  • 14

    Scatterplot

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.)

    解説

  • 15

    Illusory Correlation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The perception of a relationship where none exists.

    解説

  • 16

    Experiment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factor (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.

    解説

  • 17

    Double-Blind Procedure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.

    解説

  • 18

    Placebo Effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.

    解説

  • 19

    Experimental Condition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version, of the independent variable.

    解説

  • 20

    Control Condition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

    解説

  • 21

    Random Assignment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups.

    解説

  • 22

    Independent Variable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. (I-Control)

    解説

  • 23

    Dependent Variable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (Depends on the independent variable)

    解説

  • 24

    Mode

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The most frequent occurring score(s) in a distribution.

    解説

  • 25

    Mean

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

    解説

  • 26

    Median

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.

    解説

  • 27

    Range

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

    解説

  • 28

    Standard Deviation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

    解説

  • 29

    Statistical Significance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

    解説

  • 30

    Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

    解説

  • 31

    Aristotle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • philosopher thought that heart was the control center or mental process; started the nature vs. nurture debate; (monist) mind and body are one; derived principle solely from observations; knowledge is not pre-existing

    解説

  • 32

    Socrates

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Believed mind and body were separate (dualist); mind existed after death; some innate ideas at birth

    解説

  • 33

    Plato

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Thought the brain was control center of mental process; mind and body separate entities (dualist); mind exists after death

    解説

  • 34

    Rene Descartes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Proposed mind-body interaction and the doctrine of innate ideas; published "A Discourse on Method"

    解説

  • 35

    Dualism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The belief that mind and body are two distinct natures (mind= mental, body=physical)

    解説

  • 36

    Monism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Mind and body are connected

    解説

  • 37

    John Locke

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • monist; rejected the idea of innate ideas in newborns

    解説

  • 38

    Tabula Rasa

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mental content of newborns is a blank slate that is written upon by experience

    解説

  • 39

    Empiricism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • knowledge's origin is in experience and science and the acquisition of knowledge; knowledge should rely on observation and scientific experience

    解説

  • 40

    Wilhelm Wundt

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • campaigned to make psychology an independent discipline; established the 1st lab for study of psych; "father of psych"

    解説

  • 41

    Edward Tichener

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • introduced structuralism; aimed to discover the elements of the minds

    解説

  • 42

    Structuralism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind; led by Tichener

    解説

  • 43

    Introspection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • careful system of observations of one’s own conscious experiences; required self-reflection and looking inward

    解説

  • 44

    Functionalism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • how mental and behavioral processes functioning enable an organism to adapt to survive and flourish; William James led the school of thought; gave way to applied psychology and behaviorism

    解説

  • 45

    William James

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • coined phrase “stream of consciousness” to describe how the mind experiences perception; leader of functionalism

    解説

  • 46

    Mary Calkins

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1st woman elected to membership in the APA (American Psychological Association)

    解説

  • 47

    Psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the science of behavior and mental processes

    解説

  • 48

    Behavior

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • anything an organism does; any action that we can observe and see

    解説

  • 49

    Mental Processes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior

    解説

  • 50

    Sigmund Freud

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • father of psychoanalysis; believed in free association and dream analysis to help people uncover what lies hidden in their unconscious

    解説

  • 51

    Unconscious

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior

    解説

  • 52

    Thomas Hobbes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • viewed that the soul/mind/spirit was a meaningless byproduct of physical and chemical phenomenon

    解説

  • 53

    Charles Darwin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • believed in Natural Selection in which traits that were better suited for an environment would be passed down from parent to offspring

    解説

  • 54

    Nature-Nurture Debate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the debate about whether human traits develop through experience or if people are born with them

    解説

  • 55

    Natural Selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • idea that nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in an environment

    解説

  • 56

    Behaviorism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • founder is John Watson; redefined psychology as the science of observable behavior; rejected introspection; the study of consciousness was abandoned with this view

    解説

  • 57

    John Watson

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • behaviorist; believed behavior came from nurture, not nature; focused on stimulus-response relationships (stimulus meaning any detectable input from the environment)

    解説

  • 58

    B.F. Skinner

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • behaviorist; created the idea of operant conditioning

    解説

  • 59

    Biological Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • physiological and chemical processes of the body and brain enable emotion, memories, and sensory experiences

    解説

  • 60

    Behavioral Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • observable situations create responses that use emotions, memories, and sensory experiences; B.F. Skinner and Watson

    解説

  • 61

    Cognitive Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the encoding, processing, storing, and retrieval of information influence what we experience

    解説

  • 62

    Humanistic Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the approach that focuses on the impact of self-awareness and free will in our experiences; took an optimistic stance on human behavior; stressed humans‘ freedom and potential for growth; Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

    解説

  • 63

    Psychoanalytic Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • approach that believes behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts; Sigmund Freud

    解説

  • 64

    Sociocultural Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • approach that emphasizes how various cultures and social groups can differ in thinking and behavior

    解説

  • 65

    Evolutionary Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • approach that centers around the idea that natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes

    解説

  • 66

    Behavior Genetics Perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • approach that maintains that genes and our environment influence our individual differences

    解説

  • 67

    Basic Research

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • research that builds psychology’s knowledge base

    解説

  • 68

    Applied Research

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • research that aims to solve practical problems using psychological principles

    解説

  • 69

    Clinical Psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • aims to study, assess, and treat troubled people

    解説

  • 70

    Psychiatry

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs to treat physical causes of psychological disorders

    解説

  • 71

    Ecleticism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the use of two or more psychological approaches

    解説

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