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Economic Terms #2

カード 46枚 作成者: Sean (作成日: 2013/12/04)

  • Production possibilities curve

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  • 1

    Production possibilities curve

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a graph showing the maximum combinations of goods and services that can be produced from a fixed amount of resources in a given period of time

    解説

  • 2

    Product differentiation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • manufacturers' use of minor differences in quality and features to try to differentiate between similar goods and services

    解説

  • 3

    Rational choice

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • choosing the alternative that has the greatest value from among comparable quality products

    解説

  • 4

    Interest

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • amount of money the borrower must pay for the use of someone else's money

    解説

  • 5

    Stagflation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • combination of inflation and low economic activity

    解説

  • 6

    Export

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • goods sold to other countries

    解説

  • 7

    Equilibrium

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the price at which the amount producers are willing to supply is equal to the amount consumers are willing to buy

    解説

  • 8

    Near money

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • assets, such as savings accounts, that can be turned into money relatively easily and without the risk of loss of value

    解説

  • 9

    Fractional reserve banking

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • system in which only a fraction of the deposits in a bank is kept on hand, or in reserve; the remainder is available to lend

    解説

  • 10

    Demand-pull inflation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • theory that prices rise as the result of excessive business and consumer demand; demand increases faster than total supply, resulting in shortages that lead to higher prices

    解説

  • 11

    Perfect competition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • market situation in which there are numerous buyers and sellers, and no single buyer or seller can affect price

    解説

  • 12

    Monopolistic competition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • market situation in which a large number of sellers offer similar but slightly different products and in which each has some control over price

    解説

  • 13

    Oligopoly

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • industry dominated by a few suppliers who exercise some control over price

    解説

  • 14

    Benefits received principle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • system of taxation in which those who use a particular government service support it with taxes in proportion to the benefit they receive; those who do not use a service do not pay taxes for it

    解説

  • 15

    Federal funds rate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • interest rate that banks charge each other on loans (usually overnight)

    解説

  • 16

    Cost-benefit analysis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a financial process in which a business estimates the cost of any action and compares it with the benefits of that action

    解説

  • 17

    Consumer price index

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • measure of the change in price over time of a specific group of goods and services used by the average household

    解説

  • 18

    IRA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • private retirement plan that allows individuals or married couples to save a certain amount of untaxed earnings per year with the interest being tax-deferred

    解説

  • 19

    Roth IRA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • private retirement plan that taxes income before it is saved, but which does not tax interest on that income when funds are used upon retirement

    解説

  • 20

    Flexible exchange rate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • arrangement in which the forces of supply and demand are allowed to set the price of various currencies

    解説

  • 21

    Absolute advantage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ability of one country to produce a product more efficiently (i.e., with greater output per unit of input) than can another country

    解説

  • 22

    Comparative advantage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ability of a country to produce a product at a lower opportunity cost than another country

    解説

  • 23

    Characteristics of developing countries

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -Low GDP

    解説

  • 24

    Characteristics of developing countries

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -An agricultural economy

    解説

  • 25

    Characteristics of developing countries

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -Poor health conditions

    解説

  • 26

    Characteristics of developing countries

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -Low literacy rate

    解説

  • 27

    Characteristics of developing countries

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -Rapid population growth

    解説

  • 28

    Leading indicators

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • statistics that point to what will happen in the economy

    解説

  • 29

    Coincident indicators

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • economic indicators that usually change at the same time as changes in overall business activity

    解説

  • 30

    Lagging indicators

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • indicators that seem to lag behind changes in overall business activity

    解説

  • 31

    Loose money policy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • policy that makes credit inexpensive and abundant, possibly leading to inflation

    解説

  • 32

    Tight money policy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • policy that makes credit expensive and in short supply in an effort to slow the economy

    解説

  • 33

    Producer price index

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • measure of the change in price over time that U.S. producers charge for their goods and services

    解説

  • 34

    Gross domestic product (GDP)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the total dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a nation in a single year

    解説

  • 35

    Federal Reserve (Fed)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the Federal Reserve System created by Congress in 1913 as the nation's central banking organization

    解説

  • 36

    Functions of the Fed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -clearing checks

    解説

  • 37

    Functions of the Fed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -acting as the federal governments fiscal agent

    解説

  • 38

    Functions of the Fed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -supervising member banks

    解説

  • 39

    Functions of the Fed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -holding reserves and setting reserve requirements

    解説

  • 40

    Functions of the Fed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -supplying paper currency

    解説

  • 41

    Functions of the Fed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -regulating the money supply

    解説

  • 42

    Traditional economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • system in which economic decisions are based on customs and beliefs that have been handed down from generation to generation

    解説

  • 43

    Command economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • system in which the government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions about their use

    解説

  • 44

    Market economy (capitalism)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • system in which individuals own the factors of production and make economic decisions through free interaction while looking out for their own and their families' best interests

    解説

  • 45

    Mixed economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • system combining characteristics of more than one type of economy (most countries have this)

    解説

  • 46

    Characteristics of good credit

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "-capacity to pay -character -collateral"

    解説

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