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Economics - Terms

カード 100枚 作成者: Sean (作成日: 2013/12/04)

  • Absolute Advantage

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  • 1

    Absolute Advantage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ability of one person or nation to produce a particular good at a lower cost than another person or nation.

    解説

  • 2

    closely held corporation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • corporation that issues stock to only a few people, often family members.

    解説

  • 3

    barrier to entry

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • any factor that makes it difficult for a new firm to enter a market.

    解説

  • 4

    capital budget

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • budget for major capital, or investment expenditures.

    解説

  • 5

    authoritarian

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • requiring strict obedience to an authority, such as a dictator.

    解説

  • 6

    commodity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a product that is the same no matter who produces it, such as petroleum, notebook paper, or milk.

    解説

  • 7

    bear market

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a steady drop in the stock market over a period of time.

    解説

  • 8

    common stock

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stock whose dividends are based on market fluctuations.

    解説

  • 9

    contract

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a binding legal agreement.

    解説

  • 10

    capital

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • any human-made resource that is used to create other goods and services.

    解説

  • 11

    balance of trade

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the relationship between a nation's imports and exports.

    解説

  • 12

    Aggregate Supply

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the total amount of goods and services in the economy available at all possible price levels.

    解説

  • 13

    bank run

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a widespread panic in which great numbers of peopple try to redeem their paper money.

    解説

  • 14

    capital market

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • market in which money is lent for periods longer than a year.

    解説

  • 15

    capital deepening

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • process of increasing the amount of capital per worker.

    解説

  • 16

    bank holding company

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a company that owns more than one bank.

    解説

  • 17

    credit bureau

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • organization providing information on individuals' borrowing and bill-paying habits.

    解説

  • 18

    cartel

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a formal organization of producers that agree to coordinate prices and production.

    解説

  • 19

    capital loss

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the difference between a lower selling price and a higher purchase price, resulting in a financial loss for the seller.

    解説

  • 20

    Agency Shop

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a workplace that will hire nonunion workers and does not require them to join the union.

    解説

  • 21

    corporate income tax

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a tax on the value of a corporation's profits.

    解説

  • 22

    Consumer Price Index (CPI)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a price index determined by measuring the price of a standard group of goods meant to represent the typical "market basket" of a typical urban consumer.

    解説

  • 23

    comparative advantage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ability of one person or nation to produce a good at opportunity costs that are lower than that of another person or nation.

    解説

  • 24

    cost

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to an economist, cost in an alternative that is given up as the result of a decision.

    解説

  • 25

    call option

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the option to buy shares of stock at a specified time in the future.

    解説

  • 26

    consumer cooperative

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • retail outlet owned and operated by consumers.

    解説

  • 27

    collective bargaining

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process in which union and company representatives meet to negotiate a new labor contract.

    解説

  • 28

    collusion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an agreement among firms to divide the market, set prices, or limit production.

    解説

  • 29

    centrally planned economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • economic system in which the central government makes all decisions on the production and consumption of goods and services.

    解説

  • 30

    collateral

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • property used to secure a loan.

    解説

  • 31

    contingent employment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • temporary jobs or part-time jobs.

    解説

  • 32

    assets

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • money and other valuables belonging to an individual or business.

    解説

  • 33

    census

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an official count of the population.

    解説

  • 34

    budget

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a plan for saving and spending.

    解説

  • 35

    appreciation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an in crease in the value of a currency.

    解説

  • 36

    certificate of incorporation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • license to form a corporation issued by state government.

    解説

  • 37

    complements

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two goods that are bought and used together.

    解説

  • 38

    competition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the struggle among producers for the dollars of consumers.

    解説

  • 39

    closed shop

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a workplace that hires only union members.

    解説

  • 40

    automatic stabilizer

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a government program that changes automatically depending on GDP and a person's income.

    解説

  • 41

    deductions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • variable amounts that you can subtract, or deduct, from your gross income.

    解説

  • 42

    bond

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a certificate issued by a corporation, which promises to repay with interest the amount it borrowed from the buyer.

    解説

  • 43

    contraction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • period of economic decline marked by falling real GDP.

    解説

  • 44

    copayment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • part of the cost of a medical visit or procedure that the patient must pay out of pocket.

    解説

  • 45

    business association

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • nonprofit organization that promotes collective business interests for a city, state, or other geographical area, or for a group of similar businesses.

    解説

  • 46

    consumer sovereignty

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the power of consumers to devide what gets produced

    解説

  • 47

    arable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • suitable or poducing crops.

    解説

  • 48

    block grant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • federal funds given to states in lump sums.

    解説

  • 49

    credit rating

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an evaluation made by credit bureaus of a borrower's overall credit history.

    解説

  • 50

    collective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • large farm leased from the state to groups of peasant farmers.

    解説

  • 51

    arbitration

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a settlement technique in which a third party reviews the case and imposes a decision that is legally binding for both sides.

    解説

  • 52

    default

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • failure to pay back a loan.

    解説

  • 53

    Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a group of three respected economists that could advise the president on economic policy.

    解説

  • 54

    check register

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a booklet used to record checking account transactions.

    解説

  • 55

    communism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a political system characterized by a centrally planned economy with all economic and political power resting in the hands of the central government.

    解説

  • 56

    Board of Governors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the seven-member system board that oversees the Federal Reserve System.

    解説

  • 57

    central bank

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • bank that can lend to other banks in times of need.

    解説

  • 58

    commercial bank

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a bank that provides checking accounts, savings accounts, and money market accounts and that accepts time deposits.

    解説

  • 59

    business franchise

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a semi-independent business that pays fees to a parent company in return for the exlusive right to sell a certain product or service in a given area.

    解説

  • 60

    cyclical unemployment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • unemployment that rises during economic downturns and falls when the economy improves.

    解説

  • 61

    debt rescheduling

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • lengthening the time of debt repayment and forgiving, or dismissing, part of the loan.

    解説

  • 62

    corporation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a legal entity owned by individual stockholders.

    解説

  • 63

    chronic inflation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • inflation that rises steadily from month to month over a long period of time.

    解説

  • 64

    cash transfers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • direct payments of money to eligible poor people.

    解説

  • 65

    Craft Union

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an organization of workers in a single occupation, or craft.

    解説

  • 66

    crowding-out effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the loss of funds for private investment due to government borrowing.

    解説

  • 67

    business organization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an establishment formed to carry on commercial enterprise.

    解説

  • 68

    appropriations bill

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a bill that sets money aside for specific spending.

    解説

  • 69

    cost-push theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • theory that inflation occurs when producers raise prices to meet increased costs.

    解説

  • 70

    Aggregate Demand

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the amount of goods and services in the economy that will be purchased at all possible price levels.

    解説

  • 71

    credit union

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • nonprofit bank owned by its members, often members of a single organization or trade union.

    解説

  • 72

    creditor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • person or institution to whom money is owed.

    解説

  • 73

    business cycle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a period of macroeconomic expansion followed by a period of contraction.

    解説

  • 74

    blue-collar worker

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • someone who works in an industrial job, often in manufacturing, and who recieves wages.

    解説

  • 75

    Congresssional Budget Office (CBO)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • government agency that provides economic data to Congress.

    解説

  • 76

    cooperative

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a business organization owned and operated by a group of individuals for their mutual benefit.

    解説

  • 77

    credit

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • any form of deferred payment.

    解説

  • 78

    check clearing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a process by which banks record whose account gives up money and whose account recieves money when a customer writes a check.

    解説

  • 79

    conglomerate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • business combination merging more than three businesses that make unrelated products.

    解説

  • 80

    continuum

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a range with no clear divisions.

    解説

  • 81

    articles of partnership

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a partnership agreement

    解説

  • 82

    customs duty

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a tax on certain items purchased abroad.

    解説

  • 83

    corporate bond

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a bond that a corporation issues to raise money in order to expand its business.

    解説

  • 84

    Affirmative Action

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the use of policies, programs, and procedures to ensure the inclusion of minorities and women in job hiring, college admission, and the awarding of government contracts.

    解説

  • 85

    capital gain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the difference between a higher selling price and a lower purchase price, resulting in a financial gain for the seller.

    解説

  • 86

    bull market

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a steady rise in the stock market over a period of time.

    解説

  • 87

    classical economics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the idea that free markets can regulate themselves.

    解説

  • 88

    creeping inflation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • inflation that remains low (1 to 3 percent) for a long time.

    解説

  • 89

    Antitrust laws

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • laws that encourage competition in the marketplace.

    解説

  • 90

    budget surplus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a situation in which the government takes in more than it spends.

    解説

  • 91

    deductible

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • amount of expenses that must be paid out of pocket before an insurer will cover any expenses.

    解説

  • 92

    budget deficit

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a situation in which the government spends more than it takes in.

    解説

  • 93

    coupon rate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the interest rate that a bond holder will pay to a bondholder.

    解説

  • 94

    business license

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • authorization to start a business issued by the local government.

    解説

  • 95

    bank

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an institution for recieving, keeping, and lending money.

    解説

  • 96

    barter

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the direct exchange of one set of goods or services for another.

    解説

  • 97

    balanced budget

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • budget in which revenues are equal to spending.

    解説

  • 98

    brokerage firm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a business that specializes in trading stocks.

    解説

  • 99

    ceteris paribus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a Latin phrase that means "all other things held constant."

    解説

  • 100

    contractionary policies

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fiscal policies, like lower spending and higher taxes, that reduce economic growth.

    解説

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