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Econimics - Fundamentals

カード 60枚 作成者: Sean (作成日: 2013/12/04)

  • economics

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  • 1

    economics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the study of how individuals and nations make choices about ways to use scarce resources to fulfill their needs and wants

    解説

  • 2

    trade-offs

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • giving up one thing in favor of another

    解説

  • 3

    absolute advantage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ability to produce more of a given product using a given amount of resources

    解説

  • 4

    productivity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input

    解説

  • 5

    marginal cost

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the cost of producing one more unit of a good.

    解説

  • 6

    production possibilities curve

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A curve that shows the possible combinations of two products that an economy can produce, given that its productive resources are fully employed and efficiently used.

    解説

  • 7

    capital goods

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Buildings, machines, technology, and tools needed to produce goods and services.

    解説

  • 8

    voluntary exchange

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the act of buyers and sellers freely and willingly engaging in non-fraudulent market transactions. Both parties should benefit from the exchange.

    解説

  • 9

    traditional economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An economy in which production is based on customs and traditions and economic roles are typically passed down from one generation to the next.

    解説

  • 10

    income redistribution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • government activity that takes income from some people through taxation and uses it to help citizens in need

    解説

  • 11

    incentives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • rewards that are offered to try to persuade people to take certain economic actions. Ex. profit and the ownership of private property are incentives to start a business

    解説

  • 12

    specialization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • occurs when individual workers focus on single tasks (division of labor), enabling each one to be more efficient and productive

    解説

  • 13

    private ownership

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • property/resources that individuals own and control; a core principle of capitalism

    解説

  • 14

    allocation of resources

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • decision on how to divide scarce resources among different uses

    解説

  • 15

    goods

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tangible products that we use to satisfy our wants and needs

    解説

  • 16

    3 basic economic questions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Every economic system must answer the three basic economic questions: What to produce; How to produce it? For whom to produce?

    解説

  • 17

    mixed economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • market-based economic system with limited government involvement.

    解説

  • 18

    services

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • actions or activities that one person performs for another

    解説

  • 19

    externalities

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • costs that are not calculated into the price; spillovers

    解説

  • 20

    non-fraudulent exchange

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • without fraud/without deceiving; honest, voluntary exchange

    解説

  • 21

    standard of living

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy

    解説

  • 22

    comparative advantage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers.

    解説

  • 23

    entrepreneur

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • (n.) a person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business

    解説

  • 24

    outputs

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • goods and services that firms produce

    解説

  • 25

    consumers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • people who buy goods and services

    解説

  • 26

    exports

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Goods and services sold to other countries.

    解説

  • 27

    laissez faire

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the doctrine that states that government generally should have little or no involvement in the marketplace

    解説

  • 28

    marginal benefit

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the additional satisfaction or benefit received when one more unit is produced

    解説

  • 29

    assembly line

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks

    解説

  • 30

    profit motive

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • To be motivated by the desire to make money.

    解説

  • 31

    consumer sovereignty

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the role of consumer as the ruler of the market, determining what products will be produced

    解説

  • 32

    inputs

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • labor, machinery, buildings, and other resources used to produce output

    解説

  • 33

    imports

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • goods and services purchased from other countries

    解説

  • 34

    government regulation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a rule that a government establishes and enforces to protect the public or provide equal access to specific goods, and services.

    解説

  • 35

    market economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a system based on private ownership, free trade between buyers and sellers, and competition

    解説

  • 36

    market failures

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when free market doesn't provide needed good/services or when free market hurts people

    解説

  • 37

    factors of production

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship

    解説

  • 38

    privatization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.

    解説

  • 39

    economic systems

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The ways in which a society answers the three basic economic questions to organize production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services to solve the economic problem of scarcity

    解説

  • 40

    producers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • individuals and organizations that determine what products and services will be available for sale.

    解説

  • 41

    human capital

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the skills and knowledge gained by a worker through education and experience

    解説

  • 42

    capital investments

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • firms purchase of new machines and buildings. firms invest in capital goods to increase their capacity to produce more goods and services in order to maximize profits

    解説

  • 43

    private goods

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Goods that are both excludable and rival in consumption, Goods that, when consumed by one individual, cannot be consumed by another

    解説

  • 44

    invisible hand

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a term coined by Adam Smith to describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace

    解説

  • 45

    redistribution of income

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The transfer of income through government taxation, spending and assistance programs targeted at particular income groups. The goal is to transfer money from higher-income groups to lower-income groups.

    解説

  • 46

    deregulation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the removal of some government controls over a market

    解説

  • 47

    barter

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • To exchange goods or services without the use of money

    解説

  • 48

    rational decisions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • choice in which you weigh the costs and benefits of each option

    解説

  • 49

    capitalism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit

    解説

  • 50

    public goods and services

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Goods and services that cannot be withheld from those who don't pay for them, and benefits that may be "consumed" by one person without reducing the amount of the product available for others. Examples include national defense, streetlights, and roads and highways. Public services include welfare programs, law enforcement, and monitoring and regulating trade and the economy.

    解説

  • 51

    scarcity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a situation in which unlimited wants exceed the limited resources available to fulfill those wants

    解説

  • 52

    property rights

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The rights of an individual or business to own, use, rent, invest in, buy, and sell property.

    解説

  • 53

    role of government

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • To maintain legal and social framework, overcome market failure by providing public goods and services, maintain competition, redistribute income, correct for externalities, to protect individuals and their property rights, stabilize the economy

    解説

  • 54

    marginal benefit-marginal cost analysis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Rational decision making involves marginal benefits that equal or exceed the marginal costs

    解説

  • 55

    division of labor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process of dividing work into specialized jobs that are performed by separate individuals

    解説

  • 56

    free enterprise

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation.

    解説

  • 57

    opportunity costs

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the highest-valued alternative that must be forgone when a choice is made

    解説

  • 58

    command economy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a system in which the central government makes all economic decisions

    解説

  • 59

    economic goals

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • economic growth, full employment, economic efficiency, price level stability, economic fredom, an equitable distribution of income, economic security, balance of trade

    解説

  • 60

    resources

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • anything that is used to produce goods or services

    解説

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