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Constitution Study Guide Vocabulary

カード 40枚 作成者: Sean (作成日: 2013/12/04)

  • federalism

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  • 1

    federalism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • system of government in which power is divided between the national and the state governments

    解説

  • 2

    precedent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a legal decision that occurred in the past that serves as a guide for future decisions

    解説

  • 3

    separation of powers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • duties and responsibilities of government are divided into three separate but co-equal branches: executive, legislative and judicial

    解説

  • 4

    bail

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • money given to secure the temporary release of an accused individual while he or she is awaiting trail

    解説

  • 5

    repeal

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to remove or cancel a law

    解説

  • 6

    succession

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when someone takes over a title or an office from someone who held it before

    解説

  • 7

    veto

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when the President rejects a bill from becoming a law

    解説

  • 8

    judicial activism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the practice of the Supreme Court of basing a decision on what the Court perceives will ensure the public good, or is fair and just regardless its previous decisions

    解説

  • 9

    judicial review

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the power of the Supreme Court to determine whether legislative and executive actions and laws are in violation of the Constitution

    解説

  • 10

    jurisdiction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the power of a court to act in its area of authority

    解説

  • 11

    quota

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a number or amount of a particular race or group to achieve a desired result

    解説

  • 12

    establishment clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the part of the First Amendment that prohibits the government from setting up a national religion

    解説

  • 13

    amend

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to change or add to, especially when changing or adding to the Constitution

    解説

  • 14

    discrimination

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • policy or attitude that denies equal rights and treatment to certain groups of people

    解説

  • 15

    grand jury

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a group of people selected to hear evidence and decide whether a person should be charged with a crime

    解説

  • 16

    commission

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a legal document that authorizes or gives someone the right to perform certain duties

    解説

  • 17

    civil

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • relating to ordinary community life that is not criminal conduct

    解説

  • 18

    free exercise clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the part of the First Amendment that permits Americans to practice any religion without government interference

    解説

  • 19

    prosecutor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a government official who seeks to prove the guilt of an accused person

    解説

  • 20

    writ of habeus corpus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a court order that requires the government to release a prisoner unless good cause for imprisonment can be shown

    解説

  • 21

    due process

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • legal proceedings carried out through established rules and procedures to insure the accused is treated fairly

    解説

  • 22

    nomination

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process of selecting candidates to run for public office

    解説

  • 23

    reverse discrimination

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the bias to a person or group that results from the use of affirmative action to undo past discrimination

    解説

  • 24

    Jim Crow laws

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • laws passed by southern states in the 1800s and 1900s to force the segregation of the races

    解説

  • 25

    impeachment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the act of accusing and formally charging the President with misconduct

    解説

  • 26

    segregate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to separate people on the basis of race, class, ethnicity or other differences

    解説

  • 27

    unconstitutional

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • in violation of the Constitution

    解説

  • 28

    elastic clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • constitutional power that gives Congress the authority to make the laws needed to carry out its expressed (written) responsibilities

    解説

  • 29

    capital punishment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a penalty or death for a crime

    解説

  • 30

    libel

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • intentionally writing something that injures someone's reputation

    解説

  • 31

    plea bargain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a process in which an accused person agrees to plead guilty to a crime in exchange for a promise of a reduced sentence or the dismissal of other criminal charges

    解説

  • 32

    presumption of innocence

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the assumption (not in the Constitution) that someone is innocent until proven guilty of a crime

    解説

  • 33

    probable cause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a valid reason for a public search or arrest

    解説

  • 34

    checks and balances

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when each branch of government is subject to certain restraints (or controls) of the other two

    解説

  • 35

    writ of mandamus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a document that orders someone in government to perform certain duties

    解説

  • 36

    Cabinet

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an advisory board to the President composed of the heads of the various executive branch departments (such as the State Dept., the Justice Dept., the Dept. of Homeland Security etc.)

    解説

  • 37

    political party

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an organized group of people that seeks to advance or carry out its ideas by controlling government through the winning of elections and holding public office

    解説

  • 38

    judicial restraint

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the practice of the Supreme Court to base its decision on previous decisions dealing with similar issues, or upholding a law that does not clearly violate the Constitution

    解説

  • 39

    civil rights

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • basic rights guaranteed to the citizens by law or by the Supreme Court

    解説

  • 40

    affirmative action

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a program aimed at ending the effects of past discrimination by giving favored treatment to minority groups

    解説

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