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Plant-Animal Interactions

カード 28枚 作成者: Kate (作成日: 2013/12/04)

  • Three Primary Reasons Insects were thought to have little effect on plant populations

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    Three Primary Reasons Insects were thought to have little effect on plant populations

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Plant Populations are rarely seed limited, Plants have large compensatory abilities, Insect herbivores are relatively small

    解説

  • 2

    Louda and Potvin 1995 , (Seed limitation in Cirsium canescens)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Found that spraying flower heads with insecticide increased the number of reproductive adults in the next generation by 2-3 fold

    解説

  • 3

    Associational Resistance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Host Plant species receive less damage from herbivores in diverse plant communities than in species-poor communities

    解説

  • 4

    Plant Vigor Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Herbivores preferentially feed on vigorous plants or vigorous modules within plants

    解説

  • 5

    Plant stress Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Herbivores experience greater fitness of plants that suffer resource stress

    解説

  • 6

    Why should predation be more intense in more diverse plant communities? (3 parts)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Diverse plant communities may produce greater insect herbivore diversity which in turn produces more consistently large predator populations

    解説

  • 7

    Why should predation be more intense in more diverse plant communities? (3 parts)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Diverse or complex plant communities may reduce intra-guild predation

    解説

  • 8

    Dominant Paradigm Rebuttal 1

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Insects need not kill a plant in order to affect its competitiveness in the community and by extension the insect's ability to alter community dynamics

    解説

  • 9

    Bishop and Fagan 2000

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Found that a follivorous insect limited population growth on the edges but predator densities were greater in the interior of the colony and follivore populations were insufficient to limit population growth

    解説

  • 10

    Why?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Typically it takes far less tissue consumption to limit or damage a species' competitiveness than it does to kill it

    解説

  • 11

    Resource Concentration Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Host-plant concentration and specialist-herbivore density are positively related because concentrated host patches are easier to find and herbivores remain longer in concentrated patches

    解説

  • 12

    Direct Effects (interactions)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The effect of one species on another that is not mediated by a third party

    解説

  • 13

    Outbreak Dynamics (grasshopper)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • May occur multiple times in a perennials lifetime, Non-outbreak herbivore densities allow for subordinate persistence, non-outbreak herbivore densities can prevent outbreak recovery

    解説

  • 14

    Dominant Paradigm Rebuttal 2

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Many insect populations show out-breaking dynamics where populations are maintained at low levels but periodically experience booms that drastically increase herbivore densities

    解説

  • 15

    Do above ground or below ground herbivores have larger effects on plant community composition?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Schadler 2004 found that below ground herbivores have greater affects on community dynamics than above ground herbivores

    解説

  • 16

    Intercropping

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A traditional agricultural practice of planting unrelated crop species in alternating rows to reduce insect herbivore damage

    解説

  • 17

    Direct Affects

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Insect herbivory is so intense that it directly suppresses a plant species' populations or extirpates it from the community all together

    解説

  • 18

    Which is more common? (Exclusion through direct affects or altered competitiveness)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Altered Competitiveness

    解説

  • 19

    Janzen-Connell Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • density-dependent or distance-dependent pathogen transmission or herbivory by specialist insects drive high tree species diversity in tropical forests

    解説

  • 20

    Kelley and Dryer 2002

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Found that insect presence on the flower head reduced lambda from .95 to .87

    解説

  • 21

    Indirect Effects (interactions)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The effect of one species on a second by altering the abundance or behavior of a third species

    解説

  • 22

    Parker and Root 1981

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Guttierezia is beneficial to Hesperotettix and Hesperotettix heavily predates on Machaeranthera, so Machaeranthera is rarely close to Guttierezia and extremely damaged when it is

    解説

  • 23

    How does Insect Herbivory Increase plant species richness?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Targeted herbivory of the dominant species delays competitive exclusion of less dominant species leading to increased species richness

    解説

  • 24

    How does insect herbivory depress plant species richness?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Targeted herbivory of a less dominant species expedites competitive exclusion leading to decreased species richness

    解説

  • 25

    Enemies Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Natural enemies limit herbivore populations more in diverse plant communities. Diverse plant communities support more diverse predator communities and more stable predator populations

    解説

  • 26

    Why should predation be more intense in more diverse plant communities? (3 parts)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Predators may consume some plant resources, like nectar, leading to larger and more consistent predator populations

    解説

  • 27

    Carson and Root (2000) 

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Outbreaks can suppress competitive dominants

    解説

  • 28

    Dominant Paradigm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Insect Herbivores have little effect on plant communities because insects are small bodied and therefore consume relatively little plant tissue and insect populations are small and predator limited

    解説

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