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AP Biology Plants #5

カード 81枚 作成者: Kate (作成日: 2013/12/04)

  • functions of roots

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  • カード表 : 英語
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  • 1

    functions of roots

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -absorb nutrients from soil, anchor it, and store food

    解説

  • 2

    epidermis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • covers the entire surface of the root and is modifeid for absorption, have root hairs

    解説

  • 3

    root hairs

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • slender cytoplasmic projections that increase absorptive surface areas

    解説

  • 4

    cortex

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • consists of parenchymal cells that contain plasmids for the storage of starch and organic substances

    解説

  • 5

    stele (vascular cylinder)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • consists of vascular tissues surroudned by one or more layers of tissues called pericycle where lateral roots arise

    解説

  • 6

    endoderm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tightly packed layer of cells  -wrapped in casparian strips  -selects what materials enter the vascular cylinder and the body of the plant

    解説

  • 7

    casparian strips

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • continuous bands of suberin

    解説

  • 8

    suberin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • waxy material that is impervious to water and dissolved minerals

    解説

  • 9

    apical meristem

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tip of root and provides primary growth  -zone of cell division -protected by a root cap

    解説

  • 10

    zone of cell division

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -meristem cells that are responsible for cells that grow into the soil

    解説

  • 11

    zone of elongation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -elongate and push the root cap downward deeper into the soil

    解説

  • 12

    zone of differentiation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -undergo specialization -protoderm becomes the epidermis -ground meristem: cortex for storage  -procambium: primary xylem and phloem

    解説

  • 13

    taproot

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -single large root that gives rise to lateral branch roots  -dicots it is the primary root  -tap water deep into soil -carrots, beets, turnips store food

    解説

  • 14

    fibrous root system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -common in monocots and holds plant firmly in place

    解説

  • 15

    aerial roots

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • trees that grow in swamps or salt marshes have these that stick out of the water and serve to aerate the root cells

    解説

  • 16

    english ivy has

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • aerial roots that enable it to stick to buildings

    解説

  • 17

    prop roots

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tall plants like corn which grow above the ground from the base and support the plant

    解説

  • 18

    vascular bundles

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • vascular tissue runs the length of the stem in strands

    解説

  • 19

    vascular bundles contain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • xylem on the inside, phloem on the outside, meristem in the middle

    解説

  • 20

    in monocots vascular bundles are

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • scattered throughout the stem

    解説

  • 21

    in dicots vascular bundles

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • are arranged in a ring around the edge of the stem

    解説

  • 22

    ground tissue of the stem consists of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • cortex and pith parenchymal tissues modified for storage

    解説

  • 23

    apical meristem

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • located at the tips of the shoots and roots supply cell for the plant to grow in length

    解説

  • 24

    lateral meristem

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -secondary growth -replaces the epidermis with a secondary dermal tissue like bark which is thicker and tougher -adds layers of vascular tissue

    解説

  • 25

    wood is a

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • secondary xylem that accumulates over the years

    解説

  • 26

    leaf is organized for

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • maximum sugar production with minimun water loss

    解説

  • 27

    epidermis is covered by a

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • waxy cuticle made of cutin to minimize water loss

    解説

  • 28

    guard cells

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • modified epidermal cells that contain chloroplasts are photosynthetic and control the opening of the stomates

    解説

  • 29

    palisade and spongy mesophyll

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • inner part of the leaf whose cells function is photosynthesis

    解説

  • 30

    cells in the palisade layer are packed.......cells in the spongy are ......packed because.....

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tightly, loosely, allow for diffusion of gases into and out of these cells

    解説

  • 31

    vascular bundles or veins

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • located in the mesolhyll and carry water and nutrients from the soil to the leaves and also carry sugar from leaves to the rest of the plants

    解説

  • 32

    bundle sheath cells

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • specialized mesophyll cells that surround the veins and separate them from the rest of the mesophyll

    解説

  • 33

    90 percent of water a plant loses escapes through the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stomates which is 1 percent of the surface of the leaf

    解説

  • 34

    guard cells are modified epithelium containing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • chloroplasts that control the opening and closing of the stomates by changing their shape

    解説

  • 35

    cell walls of guard cells are not

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • that thick

    解説

  • 36

    cellulose microfibrils are

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • oriented in such a direction that when the guard cells absorb water by osmosis and become turgid they curve like hot dogs causing stomate to open

    解説

  • 37

    when guard cells lose water and become

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • flaccid the stomate closes

    解説

  • 38

    depletion of CO₂ within the air spaces of the leaf

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • occurs when photosynthesis begins triggers the stomates to open a plant can be tricked into opening them are night by placing them into a chamber devoid of CO₂

    解説

  • 39

    an increase in potassium ions in the guard cells

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • which losers their water potential causes water to diffuse into them and they become turgid they guard cells swell and the stomate opens

    解説

  • 40

    the stimulation of the blue light receptor in a guard cell stimulates the activity of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ATP powered proton pumps in the plasma membrane which promotes the uptake of K⁺ ions causing the stomates to open

    解説

  • 41

    stomate opening correlates with

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • active transport of H⁺ out of guard cells into the surrounding ones

    解説

  • 42

    lack of water

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • causes the guard cell to lose tugor and close the stomata

    解説

  • 43

    high temperatures

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • colse stomate presumably by stimulating cellular respiration and increasing CO₂ concentration within the air spaces of the leaf

    解説

  • 44

    abscisic acid

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • produced in the mesophyll cells in response to dehydration signals guard cells to close the stomates

    解説

  • 45

    xylem fluid rises in a plant against gravity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • requires no energy

    解説

  • 46

    the fluid in the xylem is pushed up by root pressure or pulled by the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • transpirational pull

    解説

  • 47

    root pressure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • results form water flowing into the stele from the soil as a result of the high mineral content in the root cells

    解説

  • 48

    root pressure can push xylem sap upward only a few

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • yards

    解説

  • 49

    guttation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • droplets of water that appear in the morning on the leaf tips of some herbaceous dicots

    解説

  • 50

    transpirational pull

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • carries fluid up the worlds tallest trees, the transpiration of water from leaves causes negative pressure to develop in the xylem tissue formt eh roots to the leaves

    解説

  • 51

    cohesion of water due to strong attraction between water molecules makes it possible to

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • pull a column of water from above within the xylem

    解説

  • 52

    absorption of sunlight drives transpiration by causing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • water to evaporate from the leaf

    解説

  • 53

    transpirational pull cohesion tension theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • for each molecule of water that evaporates from a leaf by transpiration another molecule of water is drawn to replace it

    解説

  • 54

    factors that affect the rate of tramspiration

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -high humidity slows it down -wind can reduce humidity near the stomates and increase transpiration -increased light intensity will increase photosynthesis and increase the amount of water vapor and increase the rate of transpiration -closing stomates stops transpiration

    解説

  • 55

    movement of water and solutes across a plant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • lateral movement

    解説

  • 56

    symplast

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • continuous system of cytoplasm of cells interconnected by plasmodesmata for long distance transport

    解説

  • 57

    apoplast

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits short distance extracellular movement of water within a plant

    解説

  • 58

    when water reaches the endodermis it can

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • cont to the xylem thru the symplast but water in the apoplast must pass across the endodermis by diffusion

    解説

  • 59

    mycorrhizae

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • in mature plants where older regions of roots lack root hairs they supply the plant with water and minerals -symbiotic structures consistig of the plants roots intermingled with the hyphae of fungus that gretly increase the quantity of nutrients that a plant can absorb

    解説

  • 60

    rhizobium

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -symbiotic bacterium that lives in the nodules on roots of specific legumes and that fixes nitrogen gas from the air into a form of N the plant requires

    解説

  • 61

    bulk flow

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • how fluid moves great distances in plants

    解説

  • 62

    phloem sap travels around the plant from sugar source to sugar sink

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • translocation

    解説

  • 63

    the sugar source is the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • structure in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis or the breakdown of starch

    解説

  • 64

    mature leaves are the primary source of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sugar

    解説

  • 65

    sugar sink is the structure that

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stores or consumes the sugar

    解説

  • 66

    growing roots and fruit are

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sugar sinks

    解説

  • 67

    storage organs like tubers and roots are the sugar sink in the growing season but become

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the source during the spring when starch is broken down to be used as a sugar source

    解説

  • 68

    vegetation propagation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • plants can clone themselves  root stem or leaf produces an entirely new plant genetically identical to the first -can be done by grafting cutting bulbs and runners

    解説

  • 69

    flower is the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sexual organ of a plant

    解説

  • 70

    fertilization in a flower begins with

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • pollination

    解説

  • 71

    pollination

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when one pollen grain containing 3 haploid nuclei, 1 tube nucleus, and two sperm nuclei lands on the sticky stigma of the flower

    解説

  • 72

    pollen grain absorbs moisture and sprouts producing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a pollen tube that burrows down the style into the ovary

    解説

  • 73

    2 sperm nuclei travel down the pollen tube into the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ovary

    解説

  • 74

    once inside the ovary the two remaining sperm nuclei enter the ovule through the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • micropyle

    解説

  • 75

    one sperm nucleus fertilizes the egg it becomes an

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • embryo (2n)

    解説

  • 76

    the other sperm nucleus fertilizes the other two polar bodies which become

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • food for the growing embryo

    解説

  • 77

    double fertilization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two fertilizations occur, one of the egg and the other of the polar bdies

    解説

  • 78

    after fertilization ovule becomes.....and the ripened ovary becomes the......

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • seed, fruit

    解説

  • 79

    in monocots food reserves remain it the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • endosperm

    解説

  • 80

    in dicots food reserves of the endosperm are transported to the

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • cotyledons so the mature dicot seed lacks endosperm

    解説

  • 81

    in the monocot coconut the endosperm is

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • liquid

    解説

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