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Forest Protection

カード 56枚 作成者: Brock (作成日: 2013/12/03)

  • What is the Deciduous Group

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  • カード表 : 英語
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  • 1

    What is the Deciduous Group

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • D1 Leafless aspen

    解説

  • 2

    What are the mixed groups ?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • M1 boreal mw - leaflessa, M2 boreal mw green, M3 Dead balsam MW leafless, M4 Dead balsam mw green

    解説

  • 3

    What are the slash groups

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • S1 Pl slash 1-2 season old, S2 Sw balsam slash 1-2 season old, S3 Cw Hw Fd slash 1 season old and interior too

    解説

  • 4

    What is the open group

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • grass

    解説

  • 5

    Moisture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • affects all aspects of fire behavior (fb) spread intensity, smoke production, fuel consumption, and plant mortality. time to change pend on component eg lichen minutes to change logs weeks and seasonally for grass

    解説

  • 6

    MC expressed as

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ODW over dry wt% = (wet wt - dry wt) / dry wt * 100 100% live green leaves 80 wilting 30-35 fibre saturation point 20-24 grass fuel will not burn 13-16 Pl ignite readily 10-13 burning readily sustained fb predictable 5-10 severe fb crowning start spot fires 0-5 extreme fb w/crowning/spotting

    解説

  • 7

    CFFDRS Candian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • how we collect fire weather, get fire danger - composed of subsystems FWI FBP FOP AFM. Uses weater fuel and site data to calculate CFFDRS

    解説

  • 8

    Fuel weather index

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • FFMC MC of surface litter indicate ease of ignition, DMC represent M in OM, DC MC in deep OM, Behavior: ISI rate of spread BUI: avail fuel consumption

    解説

  • 9

    FBP Fire Bevior Prediction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • estimate physical fb uses topo and fuel type - rate of spread m/min consumption kg/m2 intensity kw/m also determined on prevail fwi and site assess

    解説

  • 10

    3 basic types of fb

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • GSC ,Ground below surface in OM layers, Surface burn surface layer, Crown - passive/active crown pend on surface fire independent crown rarely independent o surface

    解説

  • 11

    running

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fire spread rapid making a run

    解説

  • 12

    creeping

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • spread slow w/low flames

    解説

  • 13

    smouldering

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • burns w/o flam and barely spreads

    解説

  • 14

    spotting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • produce sparks/embers spread by wind/combustion column starting new fires ahead of front

    解説

  • 15

    spot fire

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • new ignitions by spotting

    解説

  • 16

    torching

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • surface to crown of individual trees (passive crown)

    解説

  • 17

    Crowning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tree crown to tree usually surface supported (active crown) but sometimes independant of surface (independent crown)

    解説

  • 18

    flareup

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • acceleration spread/intensity for short time or part of fire

    解説

  • 19

    blowup

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • dramatic change in fb of whole fire transition to severe/extreme fire

    解説

  • 20

    WTF used for:

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • interaction with one another to determine the characteristics and fb at any given moment

    解説

  • 21

    Topography

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • influence fuel and weather changes and fb. EASL = Elevation Slope Aspect Land configureation

    解説

  • 22

    Weather

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • most heat from sun 50% reach earth 30% reflected into space 20% absorbed by atmos. temp and volume change when atmos pressure change. high pressure blue sky warm prevent cloud formation. Low presuure cloudy windy

    解説

  • 23

    cold front

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • cold air behind front pushes up warm air which water vapour condenses into clouds and rain

    解説

  • 24

    warm front

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • warm moist air behind front rises over cold air and rain may fall after warm rising air condenses

    解説

  • 25

    humidity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when temp rise humidity drops. RH rise in morning minimum at midday and rises in afternoon to night

    解説

  • 26

    atmospheric stability

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • resistance of atmosphere to vertical motion air moves horz or vert in response to earth rotation and to lg sm changes in temp and pressure

    解説

  • 27

    lapse rate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • change in temp w/altitude, changes as air circulates and is warmed by compression or cool by expansion. dry adiabatic lapse rate refers to rate air temp changes w/ altitude if no transfer of heat or mass into system.

    解説

  • 28

    stability

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • air stable or unstable, pending on temp lapse rate. air is stable if tem change in air mass is < than dry adiabatic lapse rate and unstable when > than dry adiabatic lapse rate. unstable air contribute to increased fire activity but air quality problems may be reduced.

    解説

  • 29

    inversions & what are the 3 types

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • layer of very stable air where temps increase w/altitude and limit vert motion in atmos acting like lid. , 1. radiation/night time, 2. marine type, 3. subsidence inversion

    解説

  • 30

    Fire Weather

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • include elements that influence the fire from the surface to 10 miles above land. Wind is a dom factor on fb and the most difficult to predict. It can dom the fire environ

    解説

  • 31

    Drought

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • effects fuel available for combustion, result in more intense fires and difficult fire suppression. it causes plant death increasing fuels, duff logs, and lower foliar mc or kill folige

    解説

  • 32

    fire interaction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • can influnce fire environ too. it can make local winds, contribute to atmospheric instability and cause cumulus cloud development. combustion column can generate lightning rain and down bursts

    解説

  • 33

    recall, does fuel start fire

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • no but affects ease of ignition size and intensity

    解説

  • 34

    what are the 5 key fuel characteristics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Size - duff/fine to CWD, Height - low ht to crown/all crown high, Arrangement - high CWD high density low/ high/ mixed crown closures, Age - change with structural stages, Species

    解説

  • 35

    MPB & Fuels

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • healthy stand - is a low fire hazard, attacked stand - moderate fire hazard, understorey release - low to mod fire hazard, seedling dominant - mod fire hazard, pine dominant understory 15-20 yr post attack - HIGH EXTREME fire hazard

    解説

  • 36

    FB - Fire growth

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • usually lightning/human caused delay in steady fire spread = build up / acceleration period

    解説

  • 37

    FB - Fire Shape

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ellipse eqn used to estimate head fire rate spread. pends on WTF. L:W increase w/increase winds

    解説

  • 38

    What are the five fire fundamentals

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Combustion, Intrinsic properties of fuel, Extrinsic properties of fuels, Canadian Fire Danger Rating System, Heat transfer

    解説

  • 39

    Energy of molecular motion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Heat applied to a substance then molecular activity goes up and so does the temperature

    解説

  • 40

    Heat of Pre-ignition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • total heat required to raise the temperature of a fuel to the ignition termperature (320*)

    解説

  • 41

    Heat of combustion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • energy that mainains the chain reaction of combustion (pre-ignition=ignition=combustion)

    解説

  • 42

    Heat flux/intensity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • heat produced from fuel units consumed per time eg. (kW/hr) or energy per area (kW/m2)

    解説

  • 43

    How Heat & Heat Transfer move

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The spread is related to manner and rate of heat transfer.  -transfered heat energy from a temperature difference, and has to keep moving to continue to spread.

    解説

  • 44

    What are the 3 mechs of HT?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Convection - HT only to fuels surface, from gas to solid pre heat crown canopy, Conduction - 'candle to a match' transfer only way heat can travel from surface fuel , Radiation - only HT to surface, by Electro~Waves, and accts for most pre fuel heating fire front

    解説

  • 45

    What are the Forest Fuel Intrinsic Props?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Plant Parts: Chemistry, density & Heat Content , Most wood consists of 41-53% cellulose 12-25% hemilose 16-33 lignin. cw faster more dense fd hotter b/c resins and may be less dense.

    解説

  • 46

    Extrinsic Props?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Relative abundance of components: Size, part dead and arrangement

    解説

  • 47

    What are Extractives

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • green deciduous veg, have hydrocarbons, alcohols, gums, sugars, wax, oil etc. less fuel but need less heat for combustion volatility and flammability

    解説

  • 48

    Ash Fact:

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • can retard combustion by promoting low temp pyrolysis to char and tar

    解説

  • 49

    Does fuel start fire?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • No. but it affects ignition ease size and intensity

    解説

  • 50

    Extrinsic Props Fuel TYPE/AMOUNT/STATE

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • any available fuel, description of fuel and state of moisture content

    解説

  • 51

    Fuel State/Fuel type changes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • State- MC eg Spring dry grass wet fresh leaves. summer green grass dry crown . MC MPB Pl 18% MC green Fd 114%. due to human/natural disturbance, Type- change abruptly natural to human caused

    解説

  • 52

    Components of fuel types

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ground - surface - crown

    解説

  • 53

    Fuel Models

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • are stylized and simplified descriptions of fuel for mathematical fire behaviours models

    解説

  • 54

    Assessment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • inventory of forest and photo guids

    解説

  • 55

    What are the 5 diff major groups of fuel types?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Coniferous Deciduous Open Mixed wood Slash

    解説

  • 56

    What are the Coniferous groups (7)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • C1 Spruce Lichen Woodland, C2 Boreal Spruce, C3 Mature Pl fully stocked, C4 Immature Pl dense stocked, C5 Red/White Pine , C6 Conifer plantation w/no understorey and closed canopy, C7 Pp Fd mixed uneven aged

    解説

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