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Plants as Insect Food

カード 85枚 作成者: Stoneman (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • The chemical composition of plants varies among

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  • カード表 : 英語
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  • 1

    The chemical composition of plants varies among

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • species, both spatially and temporally

    解説

  • 2

    Nutritional req. of insects also varies among

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • species (intra and interspecifically), and developmental stage

    解説

  • 3

    Plants consist of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • dilute nutrients,(carbohydrates, nitrogen) 

    解説

  • 4

    Plants consist of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Indigestible structural compounds(cellulose, lignin, etc) 

    解説

  • 5

    Plants consist of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Secondary Compounds

    解説

  • 6

    Insects cannot synthsize

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • some compounds, have to get them from plants instead.

    解説

  • 7

    Optimal growth, survival, and fecundity requires certain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • protein: carb ratios. Insects are mostly 1:1 ratios

    解説

  • 8

    Plants are generally poor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • food sources. 

    解説

  • 9

    Plants are generally poor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Relatively low N levels (hard for plants to incorporate into tissue). They also have defensive 2ndary compounds.

    解説

  • 10

    Insects on artificial diets

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • often (but not always) perform better on artificial diet

    解説

  • 11

    Nutritional Inadequacy Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • May Berenbaum (1995) 

    解説

  • 12

    Nutritional Inadequacy Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the nutritional inadequacy of plants may be a major determinant of host plant resistance.

    解説

  • 13

    Plants may have evolved biosynthetic pathways for

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • primary metabolite production that render plants as less suitable food sources.

    解説

  • 14

    i.e. plants evolved to be

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • poor food for insects

    解説

  • 15

    Why is NI hypothesis probably not true?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Not testable, would have to have two pop. growing for thousands of years and one could never encounter insects

    解説

  • 16

    Nitrogen additions should increase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • herbivore performance. Increased N may result in increased production of secondary compounds. May increase chance of plant pathogens. May change leaf tissue quality

    解説

  • 17

    The growth efficiency of insects is closely tied to

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • plant N content. Ex. insects on plants of 1% N consume over 3xs as much food as those on plants containing 6% N. Can't absorb more bc of structural limitations.

    解説

  • 18

    High N levels can be misleading

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • if it is tied up by other compounds. Ex. tannins, large structures in angiosperms and trees. Tannins will bind to N and tie it up

    解説

  • 19

    Fresh foliage is about ____% water

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 45-95% water by weight 

    解説

  • 20

    Fresh foliage is about ____% water

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Strongly linked to growth in Lepidoptera

    解説

  • 21

    Water content and N content are often related

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • both are higher in young leaves, compared to mature leaves

    解説

  • 22

    Many insects have been observed drinking

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • free water, dew, raindrops, etc

    解説

  • 23

    Insects can regulate water balance by

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • selective feeding, changing behavior to get food, water, remove parasites, thermoregulations

    解説

  • 24

    Insects consume vast amounts of food

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Locusts eat their bodyweight per day. Young caterpillars will eat up to 6x bw per day. Spittlebugs will eat 100-1000x bodyweight per day

    解説

  • 25

    food passage takes ___ in leaf-feeding insects

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a few hours

    解説

  • 26

    food transit time in the phloem/xylem feeders

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • can take as little as an hour

    解説

  • 27

    3 parameters of food utilization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Waldbauer-1968

    解説

  • 28

    3 parameters of food utilization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Approximate Digestibility (absorption efficiency)

    解説

  • 29

    3 parameters of food utilization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. Efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI)

    解説

  • 30

    3 parameters of food utilization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. Efficiency of conversion of digested food (metabolic eff, ECD)

    解説

  • 31

    To find Approximate Digestibility

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • divide how much digested(assimilated) by how much eaten

    解説

  • 32

    Food utilization Equations

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ECI=Growth/food ingested

    解説

  • 33

    Food utilization Equations

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ECD=Growth/food assimilated

    解説

  • 34

    Food utilization Equations

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • AD=food assimilated/food ingested

    解説

  • 35

    Feeney 1970

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • was one of the first to propose that tannins interfere with the feeding of Lepidoptera

    解説

  • 36

    Tannins bind to

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • leaf protiens or digestive enzymes in insects.

    解説

  • 37

    Haustellate feeder processes (P)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Phloem feeders have advantage, nearly all N containing compounds in phloem are potentially digestibe, not part of secondary comp.

    解説

  • 38

    H. feeder process (xylem)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • very low N levels, require insects insects to consume 300-1000xs their bw of xylem each day (leafhoppers do this)

    解説

  • 39

    for insects, N is always

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • in short supply

    解説

  • 40

    Insects must___N when converting plants tissue into body tissue

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • concentrate

    解説

  • 41

    For insect growth

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • N>calories, is more concentrated in seeds->leaves->grasses->needles->phloem->xylem (least)

    解説

  • 42

    N is usually NOT

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • in a readily available form

    解説

  • 43

    Inorganic N___, organic N____ by plants

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Inorganic N (N2) can't be taken up by plants, organic N (N) can be

    解説

  • 44

    How can you break N2 to N

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Soil bacteria

    解説

  • 45

    How can you break N2 to N

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. fungi

    解説

  • 46

    How can you break N2 to N

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. lightning

    解説

  • 47

    Fertilizer bags always have

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • N:P:K values N=growth, P=flowering blooms, K=root growth

    解説

  • 48

    Food utilization can be determined by

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the gravimetric method-based on weighing food body sizes and wastes at the beginning and end of a set time

    解説

  • 49

    Food utilization Equation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • C=G+R+FU

    解説

  • 50

    Food utilization Equation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • C=amount of food consumed, G=insect biomass produced (growth and eggs, cocoon,etc), R=respiration (CO2 expired), FU=feces

    解説

  • 51

    Budget items are usually expressed in

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • dry weights, remove H20

    解説

  • 52

    Relative Growth Rate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a way to express performance, the amount of growth (mg dry matter) per unit of body weight (mg dry matter) per unit time

    解説

  • 53

    RGR is very common in

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • aphid life history studies as wet weights

    解説

  • 54

    Haustellates have a ___RGR than mandibulates

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • higher

    解説

  • 55

    Approximate digestibility of plant tissue is __than animal tissue

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • lower. Herbivores-AD 40-50%, Carnivores-AD 80%

    解説

  • 56

    Trade off between herbivore and carnivore AD

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • herb. generally have unlimited access to food, carnivores have to hunt for food

    解説

  • 57

    How to avoid sub-optimal food sources

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Dietary self-selection

    解説

  • 58

    How to avoid sub-optimal food sources

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. Compensatory Feeding

    解説

  • 59

    How to avoid sub-optimal food sources

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. Optimize utilization efficiencies

    解説

  • 60

    Dietary self-selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • leave a nutritionally poor plant, search for alternatives, very common

    解説

  • 61

    Compensatory feeding

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • increase food intake on same plant, very common

    解説

  • 62

    Optimize utilization efficiencies

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • keep consumption rates constant, not likely (they'd already be doing it) optimize physiology, optimize way to utilize poor food source

    解説

  • 63

    There are ___on compensatory feeding

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • constraints

    解説

  • 64

    A trade -off exists between

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • rate and efficiency

    解説

  • 65

    Increased consumption rate of one nutrient may lead to an excess and

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • reduce utilization of the other, counteracting the effect of compensation

    解説

  • 66

    Increased consumption rate may lead to increased consumption of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • secondary comp. -detoxification process is energetically expensive

    解説

  • 67

    If and insect eats too fast, food will

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • pass through too quickly

    解説

  • 68

    Comes a point where you can only eat at

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a certain rate where nutrient absorption occurs

    解説

  • 69

    Secondary compounds ___effect herbivores

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • negatively; 1. reduces food intake by inhibiting feeding behavior 2. reduces the efficiency of food utilization 3. poisons the insect by interrupting metabolic processes

    解説

  • 70

    Cotton has ____ which ______

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Gossypol which binds to proteins in the GI tract and retards growth

    解説

  • 71

    Egyptian cotton leafworm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Spodoptera littoralis

    解説

  • 72

    Plants can also have a ____response upon herbivore attack

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • phenotypically plastic: cotton produces more gossypol which inhibit further herbivore feeding

    解説

  • 73

    Generally ____than one secondary compound inside of plant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • more than 1, may be synergistic ( higher than additive)

    解説

  • 74

    Multiple secondary compounds in plants maybe an

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • evolutionary adaptation by the plant, hard to develop resistance to different comp. with diff. modes of action, can be energetically efficient if compounds are synergistic

    解説

  • 75

    Wild parsnip produces

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • secondary compounds from at least 7 different pathways

    解説

  • 76

    How to reduce harmful effects of secondary compounds

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. rapidly excrete the unwanted compounds

    解説

  • 77

    How to reduce harmful effects of secondary compounds

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. degrade the compounds enzymatically (costly)

    解説

  • 78

    How to reduce harmful effects of secondary compounds

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. neutralize them

    解説

  • 79

    How to reduce harmful effects of secondary compounds

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. evolve target-site insensitivity:evolve target sites not be effective

    解説

  • 80

    Specialized insects can cope with

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • very high levels of secondary compounds

    解説

  • 81

    Tobacco hornworm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Manduca sexta

    解説

  • 82

    Tobacco hornworm coping mechanism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • nicotine is very toxic, mimics acetylcholine (excitatory neurotransmitter) rapidly excretes before large doses accumulate, tolerates small doses well

    解説

  • 83

    Insects may use secondary compounds to their___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • advantage through coevolution, ex. milkweed and monarch butterflies, oleander aphid

    解説

  • 84

    Oleander aphid

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Aphis nerii

    解説

  • 85

    Aphis nerii use of secondary compounds

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sequesters cardiac glycosides, 0.4 mg/g dry weight, deters spiders, deters other natural enemies?

    解説

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