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Desease from insect

カード 37枚 作成者: Stoneman (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • Leishmaniasis transmitter

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    Leishmaniasis transmitter

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • transmitted by sandflies. Eggs and larvae placed anywhere hot and humid with organic matter.

    解説

  • 2

    Leishmaniasis pathogen

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Leishmania. microscopic flagellated protozoans.

    解説

  • 3

    Effects of Leishmaniasis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the microorganism attacks the phagocytes, which are the 'hunterkiller' cells in the immune system. Phagocytes that have been invaded by protozoa are not recognized as being parasitized, which weakens the immune system.

    解説

  • 4

    Leishmaniasis Occurrence

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 12 million cases in world today. increasing by 1.5 - 2 million per year

    解説

  • 5

    Visceral Leismaniasis (VL)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Commonly called Kala-Azar or Dum Dum Fever. Symptoms: anemia, enlarged liver & spleen, and susceptibility to other diseases. Mortality is extremely high in untreated cases. Besides sandflies, can also be spread through needle sharing. 500,000 new cases annually

    解説

  • 6

    Visceral Leismaniasis and AIDS

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • increases risk of VL and VL increases risk of AIDS because both diseases weaken immune system

    解説

  • 7

    Dermal Leishmaniasis (DL)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Protozoa eliminated from deep organs by treatment, but for some reason the protozoa change form and attack macrophages in skin. Skin ulcers that, won't heal to extreme disfiguration from a leprosy-like condition, with large warts on skin. More than 1 million new cases annually.

    解説

  • 8

    Dermal Leishmaniasis treatment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • extremely difficult to treat. does not respond well to any known treatments.

    解説

  • 9

    Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (MCL)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Also called Espundia, which means "black fever." A disfiguring disease. protozoan pathogen attacks the, naso-oral area of the face and the nasal cartilage is destroyed. nasal area of the face rots away, leaving a gaping hole. 90% of cases in Bolivia, Brazil, Peru.

    解説

  • 10

    Leishmaniasis Treatment (All Types)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Only option is to treat people for protozoan pathogen. antimony gluconate for 20 days, which costs about $15. Great deal of money in developing countries, and some don't know how to use it. Some will sell the remaining treatment if they feel better before 20 days. This leads to drug-resistant Leishmania protozoans.

    解説

  • 11

    Sleeping Sickness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Caused by a flagellated protozoan, Trypanosoma. Vector: the Tsetse fly. Medical name for disease is trypanosomiasis. Protozoan attacks lymphatic system first, then central nervous system.

    解説

  • 12

    Tsetse

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • "destructive of cattle"

    解説

  • 13

    Sleeping sickness symptoms

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • headaches, mental dullness, poor coordination, change in sleep cycle, coma, and an eventual slow death.

    解説

  • 14

    Sleeping sickness cure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • No vaccine, but there are drugs that kill protozoa; also insecticides to kill flies.

    解説

  • 15

    Problems with sleeping sickness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • early diagnosis of disease, distribution of drugs and insecticides, and resistance of protozoa and tsetse flies.

    解説

  • 16

    Status of sleeping sickness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 60 million people in 36 countries at risk. about 30,000 cases in 2009 due to control measures. Disease also kills domestic animals (nagana)

    解説

  • 17

    plague

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Occurs in Europe, Asia, Africa, Americas. Usually a few cases each year in the western US because various ground squirrels provide a reservoir for the bacteria. Was a major turning point in history in the Middle Ages (25% of Europe population killed).

    解説

  • 18

    plague treatment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Today, with early detection, strong antibiotics cure most cases.

    解説

  • 19

    Plague cycle in humans.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • (Continuous) Flea drinks rat blood, that carries the bacteria> Bacteria multiply, in flea's gut> Gut clogged with bacteria> Flea bites human, regurgitates blood into open wound>Human infected>

    解説

  • 20

    Bubonic Plague

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • [spread by fleas] Bacteria invade lymph nodes, nodes swell (buboes). In final stages, lungs fail so blood becomes blue/purple and skin looks dark, hence The Black Death. Little person-to-person spread. 75% mortality when untreated.

    解説

  • 21

    Pneumonic Plague

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • [not spread by fleas]. Affects victim's lungs, with lungs filling up with frothy blood. Spreads easily from person to person. 95% mortality when untreated.

    解説

  • 22

    3 kinds of lice that target humans

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • head, pubic, and body louse. Only body louse transmit diseases to humans.

    解説

  • 23

    Insects in the news: Chagas

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • kissing bug, not a beetle, new AIDS of America, caused by a protozoan, transmitted by blood transfusions, Darwin may have had it, can cause heart to explode.

    解説

  • 24

    Epidemic typhus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Still around today. One of the most important insect-borne diseases that caused "turning points in history" Having to do with Napoleon and his troops Pathogen: Rickettsia (bacteria-like). Vector: body louse.

    解説

  • 25

    Conditions for epidemic typhus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • events put humans in crowded, unsanitary conditions. occurs in temperate climates where people wear more clothes.

    解説

  • 26

    Epidemic Typhus cycle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • (continuous) Louse bites infected, person> Rickettsia grow in, louse hindgut>When the louse feeds, it defecates and deposits rickettsia>Humans get inoculated by scratching the infected feces into the open wound> Human is infected>

    解説

  • 27

    Epidemic Typhus symptoms

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • headaches, chills, body aches, high fever, coughing first. near the end, raised dark spots appear all over the body. Mortality depends on age and health

    解説

  • 28

    Other lice On Humans

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Head and pubic louse. No disease transmission. Pubic lice is almost exclusively spread by sex, but also can be spread by sleeping in the same bed.

    解説

  • 29

    Nits

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Louse eggs

    解説

  • 30

    Tick-borne diseases

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Many species transmit diseases. Caused by bacteria and can be treated with antibiotics. usually not life threatening, except for the very young and very old.

    解説

  • 31

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tick-borne disease. most serious in U.S. Vector: dog tick. Must be attached for 4-6 hours. 2,000 cases per year. Mortality of <0.5%, mostly children

    解説

  • 32

    Symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Flu-like. Large spots around wrists and ankles first, then rest of the body. high fever

    解説

  • 33

    Lyme disease

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Vectors: deer ticks. Ticks larvae feed on white-footed mouse. Adults feed on deer. All stages feed on humans. Detected by blood test. 30,000-38,000 cases per year, ~0 deaths.

    解説

  • 34

    Lyme disease Symptoms

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • circular red rash may develop (80%) with, a clear center (20%). Flu-like symptoms. left untreated, can cause chronic arthritis and neurological problems like hand and feet numbness, short-term memory loss

    解説

  • 35

    Lyme disease treatment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Strong antibiotics, such as doxycline

    解説

  • 36

    Most diseases occur in

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tropical climate. hot, under-developed, countries.

    解説

  • 37

    Climate or developmental status more important in disease spread

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • developmental status

    解説

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