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Zoology

カード 59枚 作成者: Stoneman (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • Evolution

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    Evolution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Extensive and ongoing change

    解説

  • 2

    Phenotypes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The physical appearence or visible traits of an organism

    解説

  • 3

    Punctuated equilibrium

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • States that phenotypic evolution is concentrated in relatively brief events of branching speciation, followed by much longer intervals of morphological evolutionary stasis

    解説

  • 4

    Inbreeding

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Preferential mating among close relatives, increasing homozygosity

    解説

  • 5

    Sympatric speciation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The formation of a new species as a result of a genetic change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed population (mutants) and the parent population. No geographic barrier is present.

    解説

  • 6

    Genetic drift

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events

    解説

  • 7

    Speciation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • formation of new species

    解説

  • 8

    Homology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • similarity in characteristics that results from common ancestry

    解説

  • 9

    Perpetual change

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the living world is neither constant nor perpetually cycling, but is always changing

    解説

  • 10

    Mass extinctions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • periods of large-scale extinction

    解説

  • 11

    Scientific method

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

    解説

  • 12

    Phylogeny

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Branching geological tree

    解説

  • 13

    Controls

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • factors in an experiment that are kept the same

    解説

  • 14

    Gradualism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A theory of evolution on Earth stating that all evolutionary change has been the result of the accumulation of small but continuous changes and processes.

    解説

  • 15

    Homeobox

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A 180-nucleotide sequence within homeotic genes and some other developmental genes that is widely conserved in animals.

    解説

  • 16

    Chromosomal theory of inheritance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A synthesis of Mendelian genetics and cytological studies of the segregation of chromosomes into gametes.

    解説

  • 17

    Experimental sciences

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Seek to explain the proximate or immediate causes that underlie the functioning of biological systems at a particular time and place (Biological sciences that investigate proximate causes)

    解説

  • 18

    Natural selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species

    解説

  • 19

    Cretaceous extinction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A mass extinction that occurred 65 million years ago, wiping out many marine invertebrates and terrestrial plants and animals, including the last of the dinosaurs.

    解説

  • 20

    Microevolution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • evolution on the smallest scale—a generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles within a population

    解説

  • 21

    Directional selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve

    解説

  • 22

    Trends

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Directional changes in characteristic features or patterns of diversity in a group of organisms.

    解説

  • 23

    Reproductive barriers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • any biological trait that interferes with reproductive interactions among populations

    解説

  • 24

    Theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world

    解説

  • 25

    Phyletic gradualism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Expected intermediate forms that bridge phenotypes of ancestral and descendant populations in the fossil record

    解説

  • 26

    Exaptation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The utility of a structure for a biological role that was not part of the structure's evolutionary origin.

    解説

  • 27

    Fossil

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A remnant of past life uncovered from the earth's crust.

    解説

  • 28

    Catastrophic species selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Selective discrimination of particular biological traits by mass extinction events

    解説

  • 29

    Disruptive selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle

    解説

  • 30

    Ontogeny

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.

    解説

  • 31

    Proximate causes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Explains how animals perform their metabolic, physiological, and behavioral functions at molecular, cellular, organismal, and even population levels.

    解説

  • 32

    Permian extinction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a mass extinction that claimed 96% of marine animal species and 8 out of 27 orders of insects and thought to have caused by enormous volcanic eruptions

    解説

  • 33

    Ultimate causes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of a species over generations

    解説

  • 34

    Multiplication of species

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • concept that evolutionary processes produce new species by splitting and trasforming older species

    解説

  • 35

    Sexual selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Denotes selection of traits that are advantageous for obtaining mates but perhaps harmful for survival

    解説

  • 36

    Macroevolution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups

    解説

  • 37

    Adaptive radiation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Production of many ecologically diverse species from a common ancestral species

    解説

  • 38

    Stabilizing selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes

    解説

  • 39

    Sorting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Differential survival and reproduction among varying organisms.

    解説

  • 40

    Common descent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • principle that all living things were derived from common ancestors

    解説

  • 41

    Neo-Darwinism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Modifications of an organism during it's lifetime do not change its heredity

    解説

  • 42

    Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a tentative theory about the natural world

    解説

  • 43

    Five major theories of Darwinism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Perpetual change, common descent, multiplication of species, gradualism, and natural selection.

    解説

  • 44

    Inheritance of acquired characteristics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the hypothesis that organisms' bodies change during their lifetimes by use and disuse and that these changes are inherited by their offspring

    解説

  • 45

    Polymorphism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The coexistence of two or more distinct forms in the same population

    解説

  • 46

    Boat Charles Darwin sailed on from 1831-1836

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • HMS Beagle

    解説

  • 47

    Uniformitarianism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Charles Lyell's idea that geologic processes have not changed throughout Earth's history.

    解説

  • 48

    Teleology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The idea that evolution of living organisms is guided by purpose toward an optimal design.

    解説

  • 49

    Allopatric speciation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A mode of speciation induced when an ancestral population becomes segregated by a geographic barrier or is itself divided into two or more geographically isolated subpopulations.

    解説

  • 50

    Homeotic genes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Mutations of homologous genes that guide developmental differentiation of anterior versus posterior body segments

    解説

  • 51

    Genotype

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • genetic makeup of an organism

    解説

  • 52

    Comparative method

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Characteristics of molecular biology, cell biology, organismal structure, development, and ecology are compared among related species to identify patterns of variation

    解説

  • 53

    Species selection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Refers to the differential survival and multiplication of species through geological time based on variation among lineages in species-level properties.

    解説

  • 54

    Heterochrony

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Evolutionary change in the timing or rate of an organism's development.

    解説

  • 55

    Alleles

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • different forms of a gene

    解説

  • 56

    Allelic frequency

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The frequency with which a particular allele for a certain characteristic appears among all possible alleles for that characteristic in a population

    解説

  • 57

    Positive assortative mating

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Individuals mate preferentially with others of the same genotype.

    解説

  • 58

    Gene pool

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population

    解説

  • 59

    Recapitulation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Ontogeny (individual development) recapitulates (repeats) phylogeny (evolutionary descent).

    解説

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