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Music History Midterm

カード 85枚 作成者: Teddy (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • Major Issues in European Culture

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  • 1

    Major Issues in European Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Feudalism toward Mercantile/Early Capitalist (Markets)

    解説

  • 2

    Major Issues in European Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Rise of a middle class (Bourgeoisie)

    解説

  • 3

    Major Issues in European Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Rise of the public sphere 

    解説

  • 4

    Major Issues in European Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Public/private dichotomy, and enlightenment

    解説

  • 5

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Baroque

    解説

  • 6

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Public concert 

    解説

  • 7

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Opera 

    解説

  • 8

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Virtuosity 

    解説

  • 9

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Amateur music making (private domain)

    解説

  • 10

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Rise of tonality 

    解説

  • 11

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Plethora of styles

    解説

  • 12

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Canon

    解説

  • 13

    Major Issues in Musical Culture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Beginning of musical interiority

    解説

  • 14

    The Florentine Camerata

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - 1573-1587 

    解説

  • 15

    The Florentine Camerata

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Group of poets, musicians, and noblemen

    解説

  • 16

    The Florentine Camerata

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Debated ways to recreate style of singing used by ancient Greeks in their drama.

    解説

  • 17

    Seconda Prattica

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Rhythms of music should be modeled on the rhythms of speech, at times flowing, at times halting, with points of punctuation, with cadences of varying strength, work placed a solo vocal line above an instrumental line. Supporting instrumental line was known as the basso continuo (contiuous bass).

    解説

  • 18

    Basso Continuo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Provided harmonic framework for the solo voice above it. 

    解説

  • 19

    Basso Continuo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Flexible and rarely specified, consisted of a chordal instrument, such as harpsichord, organ, and lute. 

    解説

  • 20

    Basso Continuo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Basso continuo ensemble would have a bass instrument with one or more chordal instrument, bass line was often reinforced with low range instrument, such as bass viol or basson. 

    解説

  • 21

    Basso Continuo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Basso continuo allowed for projection of sung text through a single voice. Solo singing resulted in new genre of opera, sung drama, in which individual singers assume role of individual characters.

    解説

  • 22

    Figured Bass

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A series of numbers used to indicated harmonies of bass lines.

    解説

  • 23

    Monody

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Combination of solo voice and basso continuo, the term emerged by 1630s, lies between song and speech, singers projected and text in a style that is both lyrical and declamatory, measured and rhythmically fluid. Caccini "Sfogava con le stelle" (1602), Anthology #69.

    解説

  • 24

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Emergence of basso continuo

    解説

  • 25

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Coexistence of old and new styles

    解説

  • 26

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Shift from modal to tonal writing 

    解説

  • 27

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Intervallic to chordal harmony 

    解説

  • 28

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Greater rhythmic freedom

    解説

  • 29

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Increased virtuosity

    解説

  • 30

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Differentiation between vocal and instrumental styles

    解説

  • 31

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Importance of instruments and instrumental music

    解説

  • 32

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Program music

    解説

  • 33

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Cultivation of contrasting timbre

    解説

  • 34

    Stylistic Overview

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Emergence of national styles.

    解説

  • 35

    Opera (1570-1650)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Rises out of Madrigal comedies, role reflect different gender roles, influence of papal choir, high voice parts for men were very common, gender not directly connected with voice type.

    解説

  • 36

    Recitative

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Permitted solo voices to declaim large quantities of text in rapid, comprehensible manner, syllabic setting, imitates speaking, early opera mixed with polyphonic madrigals.

    解説

  • 37

    Arias

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Settings of strophic text, choruses, and instrumental interludes.

    解説

  • 38

    Claudio Monteverdi

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1567-1643, Wrote in both Prima Prattica and Seconda Prattica, first half of career (1590): Court musician, eventually music director, for Gonzaga nobels in Mantua, Second half (1613): Maestro di capella at Basilica of San Marco in Venice, wrote in every genre, well respected.

    解説

  • 39

    Orfeo

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1607, Commissioned by son of Duke of Mantua, performed at ducal palace, opera in five acts, story of orpheus and his love, Eurydice, serious, no comic relief, large orchestra, the importance of affect. Characters - La Musica, Orfeo, Euridice, Silvia, Speranza, Caronte, Prosepina, Plutone, Apollo.

    解説

  • 40

    Politics Of 1600s Europe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Age of Absolutism, 30 years war (Roughly 1618-48), increased trade because of colonialism, churches and courts major musical and cultural centres.

    解説

  • 41

    Rise Of Public Opera

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Touring troupes, wealthy city, 1637 first public opera house, open to the wealthier public, opera houses increasingly common, changed opera conventions.

    解説

  • 42

    Liincoronazione Di Poppea

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1642, Written for more public audience, mixture of serious and comic, vulnerable characters, simpler production value, historical rather than mystical characters. Characters - Ottone, Poppea, Nerone, Ottavia, Drusilla, Seneca Philosopher. Anthology #77, blend of recitative and aria, syllabic text setting, mixture of tempi, use of chromatic harmonies to express affect.

    解説

  • 43

    Sacred Music

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Composers applied principles of seconda prattica to sacred music, Claudio Monteverdi, Antonio Cesti, Barbra Strozzi, italian, venetian music, very influential, Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672) like Monteverdi never abandoned prima prattica, Saul, wass verfolgst du mich? (1650, #79).

    解説

  • 44

    Oratorio

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Began in mid 1600s, large scale religious work (usually, replacement for banned opera, no staging or costumes, narrator instead, used all conventions of Opera (recitative, da capo aria, chorus), Jepte (1645ish) by Giacommo Carissimi (latin).

    解説

  • 45

    Opera (1650-1750)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Establishment of first public houses in venice in 1638, new audience demanded new kinds of performance spaces and imposed new economics, opera for profit.

    解説

  • 46

    Opera Outside Of Italy (1600-1650)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Slow to develop, France, Spain, England, resistance both political and aesthetic.

    解説

  • 47

    Castrati

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Originated in Italy, surgery illegal, through essentially tolerated. 

    解説

  • 48

    Castrati

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Preferred alternative to falsettists or choir boys, women forbidden from churches, increasingly common in opera as genre flourished.

    解説

  • 49

    Castrati

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - After 1970s famous castrati were opera singers (not church singers), underwent surgery sometime in youth, before puberty, often extremely well trained, part of super-star system, exit convention, high and powerful voice, usually played male leads, heroes, lovers, young men, dominated Opera Seria.

    解説

  • 50

    Opera Seria (1670-1770)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Italy, serious opera, usually tragic content, very popular, developed in Italy and sung almost exclusively in Italian, became an international genre.

    解説

  • 51

    Opera Seria (1670-1770)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Libretto draws subject matter from classical antiquity, rulers presented in favorable light: heroic, magnanimous, playing duty and honor above personal gain, texts balance drama and music with mixture of action (recitative) and reflection (aria).

    解説

  • 52

    Opera Seria (1670-1770)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Majority of arias are Da Capo Arias, from the head or from the top (the beginning), having finished B Section, the performer goes back to beginning of A and continues to end of that section.

    解説

  • 53

    The Arcadian Academy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Founded in Rome in 1690 by Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni, interested in improving Italian poetry, especially opera libretti, many other "arcadian" groups were formed throughout Europe, wanted to purify serious opera of comic elements.

    解説

  • 54

    Pietro Mestasio

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - 1698-1782, His early education was supervised by his Godfather, Cardinal Ottoboni. 

    解説

  • 55

    Pietro Mestasio

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Made his name as a poet and liberttist in Rome, appointed Caesarian court poet to the Holy Roman Empire in 1729 and moved to Vienna, wrote 27 opera libretti between 1723 and 1771. 

    解説

  • 56

    Pietro Mestasio

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Libretti set many times, only first setting supervised by Metastasio, afterward freely altered, 1730s-1760s dominated European Opera (Eventually incl. France), specific opera often tailored to local tastes, ranging from ruler to paying public.

    解説

  • 57

    Metastasian Drama

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Focused on moral forces, characters driven by interactions toward moral victory or self-defeat.

    解説

  • 58

    George Frederic Handel

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -3444

    解説

  • 59

    George Frederic Handel

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - Early life (1695-1706): travels, variety of musical work (asst. organist, violinist, composer, writes two opera seria), travels to Italy studying new operatic genre, oratorios, 1710 Kapellmeister to Elector of Hanover, 1712 moves to England after success of opera. 

    解説

  • 60

    George Frederic Handel

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • - 1720-41: writes numerous opera seria, gradually shifts toward oratorio.

    解説

  • 61

    Recitativo Semplice

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Simple recitative, accompanied by basso continuo for extended passages of prose, arias tend to be dramatic static but psychologically revealing. Dry, timbral simplistic, sparseness of sound, useful in moving a plot quickly with a lot of text.

    解説

  • 62

    Recitativo Accompagnato

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Accompanied recitative, supported by full orchestra for moments of high emotion and drama.  Supported or punctuated by the full orchestra rather than the basso continuo alone, was reserved for moments of high emotion and drama.

    解説

  • 63

    Exit Convention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • After finishing an aria, an opera seria character almost always exits. This allows for curtain calls and also prevents one singer from stealing the stage from the next.

    解説

  • 64

    Da Capo Arias

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The indication at the end of the second section da capo - from the head, the beginning. Having the b section the performer goes back to the beginning of A and continues to the end of that section.

    解説

  • 65

    Accademia degli Incogniti

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Academy of unknowns, group of wealthy Venetian individuals (1630s & 40s), involved with opera and comparatively liberal, had significant lobby power, very secretive.

    解説

  • 66

    Academia degli Unisoni

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Subset of incogniti, Barbara Strozzi's father Giulio, a founding member, discussed music and poetry, encouraged formation of musical genres.

    解説

  • 67

    Cantata

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Chamber ensemble, solo singer (sometimes multiple singers), singer to solo madrigal (published in sets, similar style), structurally flexible, Antonio Cesti, Barbara Strozzi, Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre (1665-1729), Le coup est acheve" from the cantata Judith (1708, Anth #86).

    解説

  • 68

    Louis XIV

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1643-1715, Initiated elaborate protocols of etiquette, reinforced notions of nobel docility and restraint, excellent dancer, power through iconography and music, palace of Versailles, ballet de cour, Royal Academy of Music.

    解説

  • 69

    Violins du roi

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Under Louis XIV, largest standing orchestra in Europe, 24 players on viol family: (6,4,4,4,6), after Lully took over in 1661, known for power and precision because of ordered bowing and regularized ornamentation.

    解説

  • 70

    Jean Baptiste Lully

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1632-1687, Founder of French Opera, Italian born to meager family, brought to Paris by noble family, educated him in music and dance, became ballet dancer for Louis XIV, also composed court ballets, in 1661 appointed superintendent of King's music, musical works (comedie ballets) often featured Louis XIV prominently, 1669 Royal Academy of Music founded helps promote opera in French, took over Royal Academy of Music in 1672 had exclusive rights to production of all sung dramas in france, new genre tragedie en musique established, wrote one every year till his death, works premiered first at court, later at more public houses (Palais-Royal in Paris).

    解説

  • 71

    Tragedie en musique

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • French overture, allegorical prologue (usually about recent events), five acts of sung drama (divided into scenes), divertessments, needed to distinguish itself both from Italian opera & french drama, mixture of operatic conventions, emphasis on spectacle, merveilleux, air and recit mixed with duets, trios, choruses.

    解説

  • 72

    Armide

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Armide in love with Renaud he is no so much, tries to with Renaud with her beauty, Armide uses her magical powers to ensnare Renaud, can't deliver final blow.

    解説

  • 73

    French Overture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Slow introduction, fast second section, some kind of repeat scheme (ABA or A|:BA':|), contrapuntal writing in second section, dotted rhythms, upbeat flourishes, common in French tragedie en music, and eventually opera seria. An overture that moves from slow introduction with dotted rhythms, associated with royalty, were an homage to the splendor of the king.

    解説

  • 74

    English Vocal Music

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Masques, semi operas, England hostile to foreign music.

    解説

  • 75

    Seventeenth Century English Politics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1649 Charles I beheaded because of catholicism, succeeded by commonwealth and Cromwell, Cromwell didn't like secular music, Charles I's son hid in France, 1658 Cromwell dies, more political unrest, 1660 Charles II invited to rule England as part of constitutional monarcy, inspired by Louis XIV, Charles II invests heavily in arts similar to French King, Charles II dies in 1685 and younger brother James II ascends, very catholic, appoints many catholics to office, people worried about England being to 'popish'.

    解説

  • 76

    1688 Glorious Revolution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • William of Orange invited to be King, Church of England official revolution.

    解説

  • 77

    Dido and Aeneas

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1689, English opera, dido - soprano, Queen of Carthage, Aeneas - tenor, survivor of Troy, through reluctant to love Aeneas, Dido falls in love with him, he ultimately abandons her and she kills herself, many irregularities in plot from other settings of Dido and Aeneas, likely because of allegorical content.

    解説

  • 78

    Ostinato

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A repeated figure, usually in the bass (ground bass), often expressed trance-like psychological states in which character seems out of time.

    解説

  • 79

    Ballad Opera

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Play with music that portrayed common people and even criminals rather than mythological figures or historical heroes. Simple song forms, using popular tunes, no elaborate singing, no recitative, often satirical and irreverent.

    解説

  • 80

    Mevrveilleux

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Supernatural, wonderful.

    解説

  • 81

    Air

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Lyrical aria.

    解説

  • 82

    Recit

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Recitative.

    解説

  • 83

    Divertessments

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Interludes, within individual acts that provided ample opportunities for displays of dancing and choral song.

    解説

  • 84

    Ballet De Cour

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Musical theater in France for the first two thirds of the seventeenth century. Combining song, dance, instrumental music, and ballet.

    解説

  • 85

    Secular Cantata

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Composed for events in the nobility, created by many people like: Bach.

    解説

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