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Rapid Review AP Biology #2

カード 43枚 作成者: Anthony (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • Behavioral ecology

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    Behavioral ecology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Study of interaction between animals and their environments.

    解説

  • 2

    Ecosystem

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Community and environment

    解説

  • 3

    Commensalism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Form of species interaction; one benefits while other is neutral.

    解説

  • 4

    Competition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Form of species interaction; both are harmed -- intraspecific vs interspecific.

    解説

  • 5

    Types of communication

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Visual, auditory, tactile, chemical.

    解説

  • 6

    Batesian mimicry

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Defense mechanism; harmless animal copies dangerous animal.

    解説

  • 7

    Territoriality

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal behavior; defense of territory.

    解説

  • 8

    Taxis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal movement; reflex movement to move toward or away from a stimulus.

    解説

  • 9

    Habituation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal learning; loss of responsiveness to unimportant stimuli.

    解説

  • 10

    Aposematic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Defense mechanism; warning coloration adopted by animals with a chemical defense mechanism.

    解説

  • 11

    Observational learning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal learning; watching someone else do it first.

    解説

  • 12

    Primary succession

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Occurs in area devoid of life with no soil. Pioneer species enter, add nutrients, and are replaced by future species, which attract more animals, etc, until the climax community is reached and a steady-state equilibrium is achieved.

    解説

  • 13

    Trophic levels

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Hierarchy of energy levels on a planet. Energy level decreases from bottom to top. Primary producers (bottom) --> primary consumers (herbivores) --> secondary consumers --> tertiary consumers --> decomposers.

    解説

  • 14

    Associative learning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal learning; classical conditioning (Pavlov).

    解説

  • 15

    Agonistic behavior

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal behavior; conflict over access to a resource, attempt to scare other animal into submission.

    解説

  • 16

    Reciporical altruism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal behavior; altruism toward animals who are not relatives hoping the favor will later be returned.

    解説

  • 17

    Biotic potential

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Maximum growth rate for a population.

    解説

  • 18

    Deceptive markings

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Defense mechanism; looks like the organism is larger or more dangerous than it is.

    解説

  • 19

    Secondary succession

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Occurs in area that once had stable life but was disturbed by a major force (like fire).

    解説

  • 20

    Limiting factors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Keeps things in check. Density dependent factors: food, waste, disease. Density independent: weather, natural disasters.

    解説

  • 21

    Dominance hierarchies

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal behavior; ranking of power among group members, subject to change. Know the order --> less energy wasted in conflict over resources.

    解説

  • 22

    Cryptic coloration

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Defense mechanism; allows for blending into environment.

    解説

  • 23

    Inclusive fitness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal behavior; ability to pass along genes not through production of own offspring, but also by providing aid to help closely related individuals to produce offspring.

    解説

  • 24

    Foraging

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal behavior; search image that directs animal to food. Optimal foraging is the effort of obtaining the food not outweighing the value of the food.

    解説

  • 25

    Survivorship curves

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type I: long life with death increasing rapidly later in life - humans. Type II: Constant death rate - lizards, hydra, small mammals. Type III: steep downward death rate for young individuals then flattens out - fish, oysters.

    解説

  • 26

    Mutualism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Form of species interaction; both benefit.

    解説

  • 27

    Mullerian mimicry

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Defense mechanism; aposematically colored species have similar pattern.

    解説

  • 28

    Imprinting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal learning; innate behavior learned during critical period early in life

    解説

  • 29

    Predation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Form of species interaction; predatory and prey.

    解説

  • 30

    Altruistic behavior

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal behavior; organism helps another at its own expense.

    解説

  • 31

    Kinesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal movement; change in speed or movement in response to a stimulus.

    解説

  • 32

    Fixed-action pattern

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal learning; pre-programmed response to stimulus.

    解説

  • 33

    Dispersion patterns

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Clumped, uniform, random.

    解説

  • 34

    Coefficient of relatedness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Represents average proportion of genes two individuals have in common. Higher --> more likely to aid them.

    解説

  • 35

    Migration

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal movement; cyclic movement of animals over long distances by year.

    解説

  • 36

    Biotic vs abiotic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Biotic = living, abiotic = nonliving.

    解説

  • 37

    Carrying capacity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Maximum number of individuals that a population can sustain a given environment.

    解説

  • 38

    Insight learning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal learning; reason through a problem without prior experience.

    解説

  • 39

    Parasitism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Form of species interaction; one benefits at another's expense.

    解説

  • 40

    Biosphere

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Communities and ecosystems of planet

    解説

  • 41

    Ethology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Study of animal behavior.

    解説

  • 42

    Operant conditioning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Type of animal learning; trial-and-error.

    解説

  • 43

    Life history strategies

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • K-selected: constant size, low reproductive rate, extensive postnatal care. R-selected: rapid growth, J-curve, little postnatal are, reproduce quickly, die quickly.

    解説

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