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Neuroscience and Behavior

カード 63枚 作成者: Anthony (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • biological psychology

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    biological psychology

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior

    解説

  • 2

    adrenal glands

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys that secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress

    解説

  • 3

    Antagonist

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Molecules that block a neurotransmitter's functioning

    解説

  • 4

    glial cells

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons

    解説

  • 5

    Reward deficiency syndrome

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A genetically disposed deficiency in the natural brain systems for pleasure and well-being that leads people to crave whatever provides that missing pleasure or relieves negative feelings

    解説

  • 6

    sympathetic nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

    解説

  • 7

    Serotonin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neurotransmitter. Inhibitory: Involved in emotional states, sexual behavior, pain perception, and sleep

    解説

  • 8

    fMRI (Functional MRI)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Shows the brain's functioning as well as its structure; revealing bloodflowand brain activity

    解説

  • 9

    Glutamate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A chemical in the brain that plays a key role in memory, learning, and information processing.

    解説

  • 10

    reticular activating system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

    解説

  • 11

    plasticity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development

    解説

  • 12

    neurotransmitters

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gap between neurons

    解説

  • 13

    Acetylcholine

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neurotransmitter: Excitatory: controsl muscle crontraction; involved in memory formation (in hippocampus)

    解説

  • 14

    parietal lobe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; includes the sensory cortex

    解説

  • 15

    peripheral nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

    解説

  • 16

    somatic nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the division of the perihperal nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles

    解説

  • 17

    nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems

    解説

  • 18

    Dopamine

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neurotransmitter: Inhibitory: invoved in voluntary muscle movements, learning memory and emotional arousal

    解説

  • 19

    cerebellum

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance

    解説

  • 20

    frontal lobe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; invloved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments

    解説

  • 21

    medulla

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

    解説

  • 22

    parasympathetic nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

    解説

  • 23

    interneurons

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

    解説

  • 24

    endocrine system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream

    解説

  • 25

    Dendrite

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

    解説

  • 26

    occipital lobe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field

    解説

  • 27

    neuron

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

    解説

  • 28

    split brain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them

    解説

  • 29

    thalamus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla; the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem;

    解説

  • 30

    Neurogenesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The formation of new neurons

    解説

  • 31

    GABA (gamma aminobutyric)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neurotransmitter: Inhibitory: associated with allergies

    解説

  • 32

    central nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the brain and spinal cord

    解説

  • 33

    cerebral cortex

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center

    解説

  • 34

    hypothalamus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion; a neural struture lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities,

    解説

  • 35

    brainstem

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the oldest part and central coe of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; responsible for automatic survival functions

    解説

  • 36

    MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue

    解説

  • 37

    association areas

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

    解説

  • 38

    autonomic nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs

    解説

  • 39

    myelin sheath

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next

    解説

  • 40

    Hippocampus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Linked to memory

    解説

  • 41

    Reuptake

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

    解説

  • 42

    (electroencephalogram) EEG

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface - these waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp

    解説

  • 43

    axon

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the extention of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

    解説

  • 44

    corpus callosum

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

    解説

  • 45

    motor cortex

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

    解説

  • 46

    lesion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tissue destruction

    解説

  • 47

    reflex

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus

    解説

  • 48

    hormones

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine system, that are produced in one tissue and affect another

    解説

  • 49

    motor neurons

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands

    解説

  • 50

    Agonist

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Molecule that may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to mimic its effects or it may block the neurotransmitter's reuptake

    解説

  • 51

    temporal lobe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear

    解説

  • 52

    threshold

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

    解説

  • 53

    nerves

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • neural "cables" containing many axons

    解説

  • 54

    limbic system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and agression and drives such as those for food and sex

    解説

  • 55

    amygdala

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion

    解説

  • 56

    Endorphins

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neurotransmitter. Inhibitory: invoved in pain perception and positive emotions, opiatelike

    解説

  • 57

    Norepinephrine

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neurotransmitter: Exictatory: invoved in increasing heartbeat, arousal, learning, memory, and eating

    解説

  • 58

    sensory neurons

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system

    解説

  • 59

    pituitary gland

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands; under the influence of the hypothalamus. It is endocrine system's most influential gland

    解説

  • 60

    synapse

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

    解説

  • 61

    PET (positron emission tomography) scan

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

    解説

  • 62

    action potential

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels down an axon

    解説

  • 63

    sensory cortex

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations

    解説

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