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Psychology terms

カード 65枚 作成者: Anthony (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • perception

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    perception

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process through which people take raw sensation from the environment and interpret them , using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensation become meaningful experiences

    解説

  • 2

    brightness constancy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • light movement on an object

    解説

  • 3

    relative size

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a depth cue whereby larger objects are perceived as closer than smaler ones

    解説

  • 4

    subliminal stimuli

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stimuli that are too weak or brief to be perceived

    解説

  • 5

    constructivist approach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a view of perception taken by those who argue that the perceptual system uses fragments of sesory information to construct an image of reality

    解説

  • 6

    what 3 things influence sensitivity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • intensity of the signal, capacity of the signal, amount of background stimulation

    解説

  • 7

    motion parallax

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a depth cue whereby a difference in the apparent rate of movement of different objects provides information about the relative distance of those objects

    解説

  • 8

    top-down processing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations

    解説

  • 9

    stimulus ambiguity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stimulus with more than one interpretation

    解説

  • 10

    false alarm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an error that occurs when external or internal noise is high enough to make you report seeing a signal when no signal present

    解説

  • 11

    just-noticeable difference

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy

    解説

  • 12

    hit

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a person with a more sensitive sensory system might have correctly detected that same stimulus when it occured

    解説

  • 13

    common region

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • elements located within some boundaries tend to begrouped together

    解説

  • 14

    perceptual organization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the task of determining what edges and other stimuli go together to form an object

    解説

  • 15

    computational approach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an approach to perception that focuses on how computational by the nervous system translate raw sensory stimulation into an experience of reality

    解説

  • 16

    ecological approach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an approach to perception maintaining that humans and other species are so well adapted to their natural environment that many aspects of the world are perceived without requiring higher-leve analysis and inferences

    解説

  • 17

    psychophysics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an area of research focusing on teh relationship between the physical characteristics of environmental stimuli and psychological experiences those stimuli produce

    解説

  • 18

    selective attention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • focus resources on only part of...

    解説

  • 19

    supraliminal stimuli

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stimuli that are strong enough to be consistently percieved

    解説

  • 20

    figure-ground

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when you look at a figure and the area behind them

    解説

  • 21

    multitasking

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • doing more than one task at once

    解説

  • 22

    response criterion (high vs low)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the internal rule a person uses to decide whether or not to report a stimulus

    解説

  • 23

    parallel-distibuted processing model

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an approach to understanding object recognition in which various elemts of the object are thought to be stimultaneously analyzed by a number of widely distributed, but connected, neural units in the brain

    解説

  • 24

    common fate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • objects that are moving in that same direction at the same speed are perceived together

    解説

  • 25

    convergence

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a depth cue involving the rotation of the eyes to project the image of an object on each retina

    解説

  • 26

    cocktail party effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • focus on one and another

    解説

  • 27

    bottom-up processing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimulus that comes to the brain from the sensory receptors

    解説

  • 28

    subliminal claims and results

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • it does not work and it is a placebo (question)

    解説

  • 29

    texture gradient

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a graduated change in the texture, or grain, of the visual field, whereby objects with finer, less detailed textures are perceived as more distant

    解説

  • 30

    signal-detection theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a mathematical model of what determines a person's report that a near-thershold stimulus has or has not occured

    解説

  • 31

    covert orienting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • paying attention to one thing and thinking about something else

    解説

  • 32

    connectedness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • elements that are connected by other elements tend to be grouped together

    解説

  • 33

    interposition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a depth cue whereby closer objects block one's view of things farther away

    解説

  • 34

    human factors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • science and engineering combined

    解説

  • 35

    closure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • we tend to fill in missing contours to form a complete object

    解説

  • 36

    looming

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a motion cue involving a rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina

    解説

  • 37

    attention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process of directing and focusing psychological resources to enhance preception, performance, and mental experience

    解説

  • 38

    sensitivity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ability to detect a stimulus

    解説

  • 39

    height in the visual field

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a depth cue whereby objects higher in the visual field are perceived as more distant

    解説

  • 40

    shape constancy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the brain's way to keep the shape the same

    解説

  • 41

    depth perception

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ability to perceive distance

    解説

  • 42

    miss

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • if a signal occurs but is so faint that it does not produce enough stimulation for you to detect it

    解説

  • 43

    proximity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the closer objects or events are to one another the more likely they are to be perceived as belonging together

    解説

  • 44

    linear perspective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a depth cue whereby objects closer to the point at which two lines appear to converge are perceived as being at a greater distance

    解説

  • 45

    similarity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • similar elements are perceived to be part of a group

    解説

  • 46

    feature detectors

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • noticing many different features

    解説

  • 47

    Steven's Power law

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • magnetic estimation that works for a wider array of stimuli

    解説

  • 48

    absolute threshold

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time

    解説

  • 49

    synchrony

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stimuli that occur at the same time are likely to be perceived as belonging together

    解説

  • 50

    overt orienting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • only paying attention to one thing

    解説

  • 51

    visual cliff

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to investigate depth perception in humans

    解説

  • 52

    continuity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together

    解説

  • 53

    binocular disparity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a depth cue based on the difference between two rentinal images of the world

    解説

  • 54

    voluntary attention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • attention that you can control

    解説

  • 55

    correct rejection

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • if no signal occurs and you don't report one

    解説

  • 56

    perceptual constancy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the perception of objects as constant in size,shape, color adn other properties despite changes in their retinal image

    解説

  • 57

    subliminal priming

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • intuition is stronger than what you can put in your brain

    解説

  • 58

    size constancy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • why objects appear to remain about the same size and how to brain does a formula to express distance

    解説

  • 59

    stroboscopic motion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an illusion in which lights or images flashed in rapid succession are perceived as moving

    解説

  • 60

    Fechner's law

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mathematical equation relating actual stimulus intensity to perceived intensity

    解説

  • 61

    accomodation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ability of the lens of the eye to change its shape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus

    解説

  • 62

    Weber's law

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a law stating that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus

    解説

  • 63

    involuntary attention

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • attention you can not control

    解説

  • 64

    schemas

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • metal representations of what we know, and have come to except, about the world

    解説

  • 65

    inattentional blindness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when the spotlight of your attention is voluntarily or involuntarily focused on one part of the environment

    解説

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