zuknow learn together

新しい教材を作成

Research Methods - AP Psychology

カード 45枚 作成者: Anthony (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • Hindsight Bias

解説面  クリックしてカードを裏返す

アプリをダウンロードして、このコンテンツを学習しよう! AppStore / Google Play

教材の説明:

詳細はありません

公開範囲:

公開

カテゴリ:

言語:

  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
  • このエントリーをはてなブックマークに追加
  • 1

    Hindsight Bias

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)

    解説

  • 2

    Descriptive Statistics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Statistics used to describe only the observed group or sample from which they were derived; summary statistics such as percent, averages, and measures of variability that are computed on a particular group of individuals.

    解説

  • 3

    Hypothesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.

    解説

  • 4

    False Consensus Effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

    解説

  • 5

    Placebo Effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance of condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.

    解説

  • 6

    Critical Thinking

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumption, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidences, and assesses conclusions

    解説

  • 7

    Independent Variable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

    解説

  • 8

    Range

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the difference between the highest and the lowest scores in a distribution.

    解説

  • 9

    Random Assignment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.

    解説

  • 10

    Standard Deviation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

    解説

  • 11

    confounding variable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • in an experiment, a variable, other than the independent variable, that could influence the dependent variable

    解説

  • 12

    APA Ethical Guidelines

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • these rules specify that researchers avoid procedures that might cause serious physical or mental harm to human subjects, protect confidentiality of the data, respect a subject's right to refuse at any time during the study; includes Informed Consent, Freedom to Withdraw, Debriefing, No Harm, and Confidentiality

    解説

  • 13

    overconfidence

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.

    解説

  • 14

    Statistical Significance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.

    解説

  • 15

    Control condition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

    解説

  • 16

    Hawthorne Effect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tendency of some people to work harder and perform better when they are participants in an experiment. Individuals may change their behavior due to the attention they are receiving from researchers rather than because of any manipulation of independent variables.

    解説

  • 17

    Scatterplot

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.

    解説

  • 18

    Case Study

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

    解説

  • 19

    correlational studies

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • research method that examines relationships between variables in order to analyze trends in data, test predictions, etc. (they do NOT discern cause and effect relationships)

    解説

  • 20

    Experiment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors.

    解説

  • 21

    Experimental Condition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

    解説

  • 22

    p-value

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The probability level which forms basis for deciding if results are statistically significant (not due to chance).

    解説

  • 23

    Double-Blind Procedure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an experimental procedure in which both the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo.

    解説

  • 24

    Population

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.

    解説

  • 25

    Median

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.

    解説

  • 26

    Illusory correlation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the perception of a relationship where none exists; the basis for many superstitions

    解説

  • 27

    Inferential Statistics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance (e.g. p-value)

    解説

  • 28

    sample

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • items (often people) selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population

    解説

  • 29

    social desirability bias

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself; a potential challenge in surveys involving self-report

    解説

  • 30

    descriptive

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the method used to observe and record behavior without manipulation (survey, case study, naturalistic observation)

    解説

  • 31

    Theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an explanations using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.

    解説

  • 32

    Operational Definition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables. (ex: memory may be defined as "number of words correctly recalled from a list").

    解説

  • 33

    Naturalistic observation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

    解説

  • 34

    Dependent Variable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the experimental factor - in psychology, the behavior or mental process - that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

    解説

  • 35

    Mode

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the most frequently occurring score in a distribution.

    解説

  • 36

    generalizability

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the extent to which a study's findings can be reasonably assumed to apply to the study population (not just the sample); enhanced by having larger, random samples and large differences between (experimental and control) groups

    解説

  • 37

    Mean

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.

    解説

  • 38

    Survey

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.

    解説

  • 39

    wording effects

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when a specific word used in a question affects how respondents answer the question or the order of the questions

    解説

  • 40

    debriefing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed; required by APA ethics guidelines

    解説

  • 41

    Correlation Coefficient

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other

    解説

  • 42

    Replication

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.

    解説

  • 43

    informed consent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • agreement to participate in psychology research, after being informed of the dangers and benefits of the research

    解説

  • 44

    Random Sample

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

    解説

  • 45

    confirmation bias

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

    解説

57034

セットの学習コンテンツ

公開初月で
60,000
ダウン
ロード!

無料アプリはこちら!

英単語をウェブサイト
からzuknowに簡単登録

覚えたい単語を選択するだけ!
簡単にzuknowに登録することが
できます

Get the free Chrome Extension

トップ