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AP Psychology Important People

カード 41枚 作成者: Anthony (作成日: 2013/11/29)

  • Sigmund Freud

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  • 1

    Sigmund Freud

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1856-1939; Field: psychoanalytic, personality; Contributions: id/ego/superego, reality and pleasure principles, ego ideal, defense mechanisms (expanded by Anna Freud), psychoanalysis, transference

    解説

  • 2

    Abraham Maslow

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1908-1970; Field: humanism; Contributions: hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied, self-actualization, transcendence

    解説

  • 3

    Hermann Rorschach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1884-1922; Field: personality, psychoanalysis; Contributions: developed one of the first projective tests, the Inkblot test which consists of 10 standardized inkblots where the subject tells a story, the observer then derives aspects of the personality from the subject's commentary

    解説

  • 4

    Martin Seligman

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1942-present; Field: learning; Contributions: Positive Psychology, learned helplessness; Studies: Dogs demonstrating learned helplessness

    解説

  • 5

    Lewis Terman

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1877-1956; Field: testing; Contributions: revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children

    解説

  • 6

    David Weschler

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1896-1981; Field: testing; Contributions: established an intelligence test especially for adults (WAIS)

    解説

  • 7

    Carol Gilligan

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1936-pres; Field: cognition; Contributions: maintained that Köhlberg's work was developed by only observing boys and overlooked potential differences between the habitual moral judgments of boys and girls; girls focus more on relationships than laws and principles

    解説

  • 8

    Carl Rogers

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person

    解説

  • 9

    Hermann Ebbinghaus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1850-1909; Field: memory; Contributions: 1st to conduct studies on forgetting: first, a rapid loss followed by a gradual declining rate of loss; Studies: memory-series of meaningless syllables/words

    解説

  • 10

    HJ Eysenck

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1916-1997; Field: personality; Contributions: asserted that personality is largely determined by genes, used introversion/extroversion

    解説

  • 11

    William James

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth

    解説

  • 12

    Alfred Binet

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1857-1911; Field: testing; Contributions: general IQ tests, designed test to identify slow learners in need of remediation-not applicable in the U.S. because too culture-bound (French)

    解説

  • 13

    Elizabeth Loftus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1944-present; Field: memory; Contributions: expert in eyewitness testimony (false memories or misinformation effect); Studies: Reconstruction of Auto. Destruction, Jane Doe Case (repressed memories of Nicole Taus' sex abuse)

    解説

  • 14

    John B Watson

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1878-1958; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: generalization-inductive reasoning, emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; Studies: Little Albert

    解説

  • 15

    Lawrence Köhlberg

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1927-1987; Field: cognition, moral development; Contributions: created a theory of moral development that has 3 levels; focuses on moral reasoning rather than overt behavior

    解説

  • 16

    Gordon Allport

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1897-1967; Field: trait theory of personality; Contributions: list of 11,000 traits, 3 levels of traits-cardinal, central, and secondary

    解説

  • 17

    Stanley Schachter

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1922-present; Field: emotion; Contributions: stated that in order to experience emotions a person must be physically aroused and know the emotion before you experience it

    解説

  • 18

    William Sheldon

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1898-1977; Field: personality; Contributions: theory that linked personality to physique on the grounds that both are governed by genetic endowment: endomorphic (large), mesomorphic (average), and ectomorphic (skinny)

    解説

  • 19

    Albert Bandura

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1925-present; Field: sociocultural; Contributions: pioneer in observational learning, stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others; Studies: Bobo Dolls-adults demonstrated 'appropriate' play with dolls, children mimicked play

    解説

  • 20

    Howard Gardner

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1943-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the theory of multiple intelligences (logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic)

    解説

  • 21

    BF Skinner

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1904-1990; Field: behavioral; Contributions: created techniques to manipulate the consequences of an organism's behavior in order to observe the effects of subsequent behavior; Studies: Skinner box

    解説

  • 22

    Henry Murray

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1893-1988; Field: intelligence, testing; Contributions: devised the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with Christina Morgan, stated that the need to achieve varied in strength in different people and influenced their tendency to approach and evaluate their own performances

    解説

  • 23

    Alfred Adler

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1870-1937; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: basic mistakes, style of life, inferiority/superiority complexes, childhood influences personality formation; Studies: Birth Order

    解説

  • 24

    Karen Horney

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1885-1952; Field: neo-Freudian, psychodynamic; Contributions: criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends

    解説

  • 25

    Robert Sternberg

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1949-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)

    解説

  • 26

    Ivan Pavlov

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1891-1951; Field: Gastroenterology; Contributions: developed foundation for classical conditioning, discovered that a UCS naturally elicits a reflexive behavior; Studies: dog salivation

    解説

  • 27

    Charles Darwin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1809-1882; Field: geology, biology; Contributions: transmutation of species, natural selection, evolution by common descent; Studies: "The Origin of Species" catalogs his voyage on the Beagle

    解説

  • 28

    Edward Thorndike

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1874-1949; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: Law of Effect-relationship between behavior and consequence; Studies: Law of Effect with cats

    解説

  • 29

    Little Albert

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ca. 1920; Field: behaviorism; Contributions: subject in John Watson's experiment, proved classical conditioning principles: Studies: Little Albert-generalization of fear

    解説

  • 30

    Francis Galton

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1822-1911; Field: differential psychology AKA "London School" of Experimental Psychology; Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance; Studies: Twin Studies-compare identical & fraternal twins, Hereditary Genius-used bell curve for normal distribution, & "Law of Errors"-differences in intellectual ability

    解説

  • 31

    Carl Jung

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1875-1961; Field: neo-Freudian, analytic psychology; Contributions: people had conscious and unconscious awareness; archetypes; collective unconscious; libido is all types of energy, not just sexual; Studies: dream studies/interpretation

    解説

  • 32

    Charles Spearman

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1863-1945; Field: intelligence; Contributions: found that specific mental talents were highly correlated, concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled 'g' (general ability)

    解説

  • 33

    Aaron Beck

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1921-present; Field: cognitive; Contributions: father of Cognitive Therapy, created Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories

    解説

  • 34

    Walter B. Cannon

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1871-1945; Field: motivation; Contributions: believed that gastric activity as in empty stomach, was the sole basis for hunger; Studies: inserted balloons in stomachs

    解説

  • 35

    William Wundt

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1832-1920; Field: structuralism, voluntarism; Contributions: introspection, basic units of experience; Studies: 1st psychological laboratory in world at University of Leipzig

    解説

  • 36

    Erik Erikson

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1902-1994; Field: neo-Freudian, humanistic; Contributions: created an 8-stage theory to show how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"

    解説

  • 37

    Jean Piaget

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1896-1980; Field: cognition; Contributions: created a 4-stage theory of cognitive development, said that two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth (assimilation and accommodation)

    解説

  • 38

    Harry Stack Sullivan

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1892-1949; Field: psychoanalysis; Contributions: groundwork for enmeshed relationships, developed the Self-System-a configuration of personality traits

    解説

  • 39

    Raymond Cattell

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1905-1998; Field: intelligence; Contributions: fluid & crystal intelligence; 3 domains of personality sphere (personality, ability, & motivation), 16 Personality Factors (personality test)

    解説

  • 40

    Karl Wernicke

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1848-1905; Field: perception; Contributions: area of left temporal lobe involved language understanding; Studies: person damaged in this area uses correct words but they do not make sense

    解説

  • 41

    Daniel Goleman

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1946-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: emotional intelligence

    解説

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