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Glossary of grammar set

カード 35枚 作成者: Adam (作成日: 2013/11/27)

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  • 1

    Noun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a person, place, thing, quality, or idea word. (toad, anxiety, glee, owl)

    解説

  • 2

    Number

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • singular or plural

    解説

  • 3

    Object

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the object of a verb has action done to it. (She hit the ball. She wanted me.) The object of a preposition is the noun that finishes the prepositional phrase. (to the lighthouse, after the lecture)

    解説

  • 4

    Objective Case

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • See Glossary of grammar set 1 and look for case

    解説

  • 5

    Parallel Construction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a consideration of syntax. When you make a list, express the elements in the list in similar form, whether they are nouns, phrases, or clauses. Also, when using seesaw (coordinating) conjunctions, express the elements on either side of the conjunction in similar form.

    解説

  • 6

    Participle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the present participle is the -ing form of the verb, and goes with is (is asking). The past participle usually ends in -ed and goes with have (have asked). Without the linking verb (is, have) a participle acts as an adjective.

    解説

  • 7

    Past tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used to express actions that occurred in the past. (I slept.)

    解説

  • 8

    Past perfect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tense used in a sentence that already has a verb in the simple past tense, to express an action that happened even earlier. (Before I slept, I had eaten beef.)

    解説

  • 9

    Person

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used to categorize personal pronouns. First person: I, we. Second person: you. Third person: he, she, they.

    解説

  • 10

    Phrase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a group of words that can function as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The four main kinds of phrases are prepositional phrases, infinitive phrases, participial phrases, and gerund phrases.

    解説

  • 11

    Plural

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • more than one, as opposed to singular, which is only one. Applies to nouns, pronouns, and verbs.

    解説

  • 12

    Pointing pronoun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • our term for demonstrative pronoun. Used to indicate which thing you are talking about.  (That is crazy.)

    解説

  • 13

    Possessive pronoun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • or ownership pronoun, shows ownership. (my, his, their)

    解説

  • 14

    Predicate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the part of the sentence that is not the subject.  Includes the verb and Includes the verb and descriptive phrases.descriptive phrases.

    解説

  • 15

    Preposition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a word showing a relationship of time or space, used to start prepositional phrases. (to the floor, after the fall)

    解説

  • 16

    Present tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • for now, today. (I am, he walks)

    解説

  • 17

    Present perfect

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tense used to express action that started in the past and continues into the (She has slept for hours; I am upset because I have lost my mittens.)present, or was finished at some earlier time but still affects the present situation. 

    解説

  • 18

    Principal parts

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • basic verb forms including present, past, present participle, and past participle.

    解説

  • 19

    Progressive

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -ing tense, same as continuous.

    解説

  • 20

    Pronoun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a word that stands in for a noun. There are several classes of pronouns: personal (she, it); relative (that, which); interrogative or question (what, which); indefinite (both, each, any, many); demonstrative (these, those); reflexive or mirror (itself, yourself, themselves).

    解説

  • 21

    Question pronoun: or interrogative pronoun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • is used to ask a question: What? Who?

    解説

  • 22

    Redundancy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • saying the same thing twice; needless repetition. (close proximity)

    解説

  • 23

    Reflexive pronoun: or mirror pronoun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • is used to spin the action back at the subject (He loves only himself), or for emphasis (The candidate himself wrote the speech).

    解説

  • 24

    Relative clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a subordinate, or dependent, clause that is introduced by a relative pronoun (which, that, who, what). A relative clause always acts as an adjective.

    解説

  • 25

    Relative pronoun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • introduces a relative clause. Examples: which, that, who. Indefinite relative pronouns have no antecedent. (what, which, whatever, whomever)

    解説

  • 26

    Seesaw conjunction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • our term for correlative conjunctions: either or, both-and, neither-nor, not only-but also. Parts on either side of a seesaw conjunction must be matched in form.

    解説

  • 27

    Semicolon

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • punctuation mark used to separate two independent clauses. (I ran; I fell.)

    解説

  • 28

    Singular

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used to describe nouns and pronouns when there is only one of them (bus, it) as opposed to plural, more than one. Also used to describe the verb form that matches the singular noun or pronoun (bus moves, it flies) .

    解説

  • 29

    Subject

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the main noun of the sentence (the noun that does the action), along with any words or phrases that modify the main noun. (She walks.)

    解説

  • 30

    Subjunctive mood

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • used in statements that are contrary to fact, or in that clauses of order or recommendation.

    解説

  • 31

    subordinate clause: or dependent clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • can't stand alone as a sentence. It will be introduced by a linking, or subordinate conjunction (after, while, if) or a relative pronoun (which, that, who).

    解説

  • 32

    Subordinating Conjunction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • we've called them linking conjunctions. They introduce a subordinate, or dependent, clause. Examples of subordinating conjunctions include: after, if, while.

    解説

  • 33

    Tense

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • form of the verb that tells what time the action happened. There are twelve tenses altogether: present, present perfect, past, past perfect, future, future perfect; and the continuous (or progressive) forms of these six.

    解説

  • 34

    Transitive verb

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • takes a direct object (She hit me) as opposed to an intransitive verb, which doesn't (She swam). See intransitive verb.

    解説

  • 35

    Verbal

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a phrase that looks like a verb but performs a different function in the sentence. The three kinds of verbals are infinitives, gerunds, and participles. They can act as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

    解説

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