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英検一級難単語(環境食料)

カード 100枚 作成者: echo_yosho (作成日: 2016/10/17)

  • nutrient


    /ˈnjuː.tri.ənt/

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教材の説明:

英検一級語彙について『英検一級 文で覚える単熟語』の社会経済セクションから覚えられていないものを厳選したもの。発音記号、語の意味、例文は基本的にはOxford Learner's Dictionary(Onlihne)から。

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  • 1

    nutrient

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈnjuː.tri.ənt/

    答え

    • any substance that plants or animals need in order to live and grow:

    解説

    It's good soil - full of nutrients.

  • 2

    arid

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈær.ɪd/

    答え

    • very dry and without enough rain for plants:

    解説

    The desert is so arid that nothing can grow there

  • 3

    roll in

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /rəʊl/

    答え

    • to arrive in great numbers or amounts:

    解説

    Once our business gets started, the money will be rolling in.

  • 4

    canopy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈkænəpi/

    答え

    • a cover that is fixed or hangs above a bed, seat, etc. as a shelter or decoration / a layer of something that spreads over an area like a roof, especially branches of trees in a forest

    解説

    We could see the sky through gaps in the forest canopy.

  • 5

    trap

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /træp/

    答え

    • to catch or keep something in a place and prevent it from escaping, especially so that you can use it

    解説

    Solar panels trap energy from the sun.

  • 6

    transpiration

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • ˌtrænspɪˈreɪʃn/

    答え

    • the process of water passing out from the surface of a plant or leaf

    解説

    蒸散

  • 7

    chloroplast

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • ˈklɒrəplɑːst/

    答え

    • the structure in plant cells that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place

    解説

    葉緑体

  • 8

    foliage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈfəʊliɪdʒ/

    答え

    • the leaves of a tree or plant; leaves and branches together

    解説

    dense green foliage

  • 9

    overrun

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • ˈəʊvərʌn/

    答え

    • the act of taking more time or money than was intended

    解説

    a cost overrun

  • 10

    substation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈsʌbsteɪʃn/

    答え

    • a place where the strength of electric power from a power station is reduced before it is passed on to homes and businesses

    解説

    変電所

  • 11

    conifer

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈkɒnɪfə(r)/

    答え

    • any tree that produces hard dry fruit called cones. Most conifers are evergreen

    解説

    針葉樹

  • 12

    larva

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈlɑːvə/

    答え

    • an insect at the stage when it has just come out of an egg and looks like a short fat worm

    解説

    幼虫

  • 13

    take a (heavy) toll on

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈhevi/

    答え

    • to have a bad effect on somebody/something; to cause a lot of damage, deaths, suffering, etc.

    解説

    Illness had taken a heavy toll on her.

  • 14

    undertake

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌʌndəˈteɪk/

    答え

    • to make yourself responsible for something and start doing it

    解説

    The company has announced that it will undertake a full investigation into the accident.

  • 15

    seedling

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈsiːdlɪŋ/

    答え

    • a young plant that has grown from a seed

    解説

    tomato seedlings

  • 16

    stunt

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /stʌnt

    答え

    • to prevent somebody/something from growing or developing as much as they/it should

    解説

    The constant winds had stunted the growth of plants and bushes.

  • 17

    beach

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /biːtʃ/

    答え

    • to come or bring something out of the water and onto the beach

    解説

    He beached the boat and lifted the boy onto the shore.

  • 18

    catch on

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /kætʃ/

    答え

    • to become popular or fashionable

    解説

    He invented a new game, but it never really caught on.

  • 19

    incandescent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌɪnkænˈdesnt

    答え

    • giving out light when heated

    解説

    incandescent lamp / 白熱電球

  • 20

    supplant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /səˈplɑːnt/

    答え

    • replace, to take the place of somebody/something (especially somebody/something older or less modern)

    解説

    Their work has been largely supplanted by the use of a computer program that fulfils the same function.

  • 21

    tinge

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /tɪndʒ/

    答え

    • a small amount of a colour, feeling or quality

    解説

    There was a faint pink tinge to the sky.

  • 22

    not as big of a deal as

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • not as important as

    解説

    However, this is not as big of a deal as people say.

  • 23

    flourescent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌflɔːˈresnt/

    答え

    • producing bright light by using some forms of radiation

    解説

    flourescent light / 蛍光灯

  • 24

    swath

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /swɒθ/ (NAE: /swɑːθ/)

    答え

    • a large strip or area of something

    解説

    The mountains rose above a swathe of thick cloud.

  • 25

    mitigate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈmɪtɪɡeɪt

    答え

    • to make something less harmful, serious, etc.

    解説

    Soil erosion was mitigated by the planting of trees.

  • 26

    hydraulic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /haɪˈdrɔːlɪk

    答え

    • (of water, oil, etc.) moved through pipes, etc. under pressure

    解説

    hydraulic fluid

  • 27

    pull off

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /pʊl/

    答え

    • to succeed in doing something difficult

    解説

    I never thought you'd pull it off.

  • 28

    feat

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /fiːt/

    答え

    • an action or a piece of work that needs skill, strength or courage

    解説

    The tunnel is a brilliant feat of engineering.

  • 29

    in unison

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • ˈjuːnɪsn/

    答え

    • simultaneously

    解説

    They moved in perfect unison.

  • 30

    subsidence

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /səbˈsaɪdns/

    答え

    • the process by which an area of land sinks to a lower level than normal, or by which a building sinks into the ground

    解説

    The houses in this area are liable to subsidence.

  • 31

    submerge

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /səbˈmɜːdʒ/

    答え

    • to go under the surface of water or liquid

    解説

    The submarine had had time to submerge before the warship could approach.

  • 32

    inadvertently

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌɪnədˈvɜːtəntli/

    答え

    • by accident; without intending to

    解説

    We had inadvertently left without paying the bill.

  • 33

    crack down

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /kræk/

    答え

    • to try harder to prevent an illegal activity and deal more severely with those who are caught doing it

    解説

    Police are cracking down on drug dealers.

  • 34

    derelict

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • ˈderəlɪkt/

    答え

    • not used or cared for and in bad condition

    解説

    The land lay derelict for ten years.

  • 35

    atmospheric

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌætməsˈferɪk/

    答え

    • related to the earth’s atmosphere

    解説

    atmospheric pollution

  • 36

    covenant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈkʌvənənt/

    答え

    • to promise or legally agree to do something or give somebody something, especially to pay a regular amount of money to somebody/something

    解説

    All profits are covenanted to medical charities.

  • 37

    deplete

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /dɪˈpliːt/

    答え

    • to reduce something by a large amount so that there is not enough left

    解説

    Food supplies were severely depleted.

  • 38

    CFC

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌsiː ef ˈsiː/

    答え

    • chlorofluorocarbon /フロンガス

    解説

    フロンガス

  • 39

    propel

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /prəˈpel/

    答え

    • to move, drive or push something forward or in a particular direction

    解説

    He succeeded in propelling the ball across the line.

  • 40

    set off

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /set/

    答え

    • to start a process or series of events

    解説

    Panic on the stock market set off a wave of selling.

  • 41

    stratosphere

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • ˈstrætəsfɪə(r)/

    答え

    • the layer of the earth’s atmosphere between about 10 and 50 kilometres above the surface of the earth

    解説

    成層圏

  • 42

    premise

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈpremɪs/

    答え

    • a statement or an idea that forms the basis for a reasonable line of argument

    解説

    His reasoning is based on the premise that all people are equally capable of good and evil.

  • 43

    tally up

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈtæli/

    答え

    • to calculate the total number, cost, etc. of something

    解説

    When we tallied up the cost of moving, we decided against it.

  • 44

    defy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /dɪˈfaɪ/

    答え

    • to be impossible or almost impossible to believe, explain, describe, etc.

    解説

    The beauty of the scene defies description.

  • 45

    defiant

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /dɪˈfaɪənt/

    答え

    • openly refusing to obey somebody/something, sometimes in an aggressive way

    解説

    The terrorists sent a defiant message to the government.

  • 46

    defiance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /dɪˈfaɪəns/

    答え

    • open refusal to obey somebody/something

    解説

    Nuclear testing was resumed in defiance of an international ban.

  • 47

    plague

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /pleɪɡ/

    答え

    • to annoy somebody or create problems, especially by asking for something, demanding attention, etc.

    解説

    Rock stars have to get used to being plagued by autograph hunters.

  • 48

    fracture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈfræktʃə(r)/

    答え

    • the fact of something breaking, especially a bone

    解説

    Research has shown that hormone (/ˈhɔːməʊn/) replacement therapy can reduce the risk of fracture by 50 to 60 per cent.

  • 49

    equilibrium

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌiːkwɪˈlɪbriəm/

    答え

    • a state of balance, especially between opposing forces or influences

    解説

    The point at which the solid and the liquid are in equilibrium is called the freezing point.

  • 50

    irretrievably

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌɪrɪˈtriːvəbli/

    答え

    • in a way that means you can never make something right or get it back

    解説

    Some of our old traditions are irretrievably lost.

  • 51

    stratum

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈstrɑːtəm/

    答え

    • a layer or set of layers of rock, earth, etc.

    解説

    Excavated coins can often be dated from other objects in the same stratum.

  • 52

    deforestation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌdiːˌfɒrɪˈsteɪʃn/

    答え

    • the act of cutting down or burning the trees in an area

    解説

    land erosion caused by widespread deforestation

  • 53

    sediment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈsedɪmənt/

    答え

    • the solid material that settles at the bottom of a liquid

    解説

    堆積物

  • 54

    methane

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈmiːθeɪn/

    答え

    • a gas without colour or smell, that burns easily and is used as fuel. Natural gas consists mainly of methane.

    解説

    メタン

  • 55

    ice sheet

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a layer of ice that covers a large area of land for a long period of time

    解説

    氷床

  • 56

    credence

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈkriːdns

    答え

    • a quality that an idea or a story has that makes you believe it is true

    解説

    Historical evidence lends credence to his theory.

  • 57

    credentials

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /krəˈdenʃlz/

    答え

    • the qualities, training or experience that make you suitable to do something

    解説

    She has impeccable credentials as a researcher.

  • 58

    inhospitable

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌɪnhɒˈspɪtəbl/

    答え

    • difficult place to stay or live in, especially because there is no shelter from the weather

    解説

    an inhospitable climate

  • 59

    tipping point

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the point at which the number of small changes over a period of time reaches a level where a further small change has a sudden and very great effect on a system or leads to an idea suddenly spreading quickly among a large number of people

    解説

  • 60

    impending

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ɪmˈpendɪŋ/

    答え

    • that is going to happen very soon

    解説

    They were all filled with a sense of impending doom.

  • 61

    spell

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /spel/

    答え

    • to have something, usually something bad, as a result; to mean something, usually something bad

    解説

    The crop failure spelt disaster for many farmers.

  • 62

    propensity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /prəˈpensəti/

    答え

    • a tendency to a particular kind of behaviour

    解説

    He showed a propensity for violence.

  • 63

    inherent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ɪnˈherənt/

    答え

    • that is a basic or permanent part of somebody/something and that cannot be removed, intrinsic

    解説

    Violence is inherent in our society.

  • 64

    augment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ɔːɡˈment/

    答え

    • to increase the amount, value, size, etc. of something

    解説

    He wrote magazine articles in order to augment his income.

  • 65

    low pressure

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a condition of the air which affects the weather when the pressure is lower than average /<=> high pressure

    解説

  • 66

    oceanography

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌəʊʃəˈnɒɡrəfi/

    答え

    • the scientific study of the ocean

    解説

    海洋学

  • 67

    brackish

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈbrækɪʃ/

    答え

    • salty in an unpleasant way

    解説

    brackish water / 汽水

  • 68

    spell out

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to explain something in a very clear way with details:

    解説

    The government has so far refused to spell out its plans/policies.

  • 69

    synthetic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /sɪnˈθet.ɪk/

    答え

    • made from artificial substances, often copying a natural product

    解説

    synthetic fibres

  • 70

    imperil

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ɪmˈper.əl/

    答え

    • to put something or someone at risk or in danger of being harmed or destroyed

    解説

    A police raid would imperil the lives of the hostages.

  • 71

    mull over

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /mʌl/

    答え

    • to think carefully about something for a long time:

    解説

    I need a few days to mull things over before I decide if I'm taking the job.

  • 72

    nesting pair

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a pair of animals which cooperate over time to produce offspring with some form of a bond between the individuals.

    解説

    breeding pair

  • 73

    hammmer out

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈhæmə(r)/

    答え

    • to discuss a plan, an idea, etc. until everyone agrees or a decision is made

    解説

    to discuss a plan, an idea, etc. until everyone agrees or a decision is made

  • 74

    fungicide

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈfʌnɡɪsaɪd/

    答え

    • a substance that kills fungus

    解説

  • 75

    admonish

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ədˈmɒnɪʃ/

    答え

    • to strongly advise somebody to do something

    解説

    A warning voice admonished him not to let this happen.

  • 76

    bum rap

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /bʌm/

    答え

    • an unfair judgement on someone or something.

    解説

    the industry often gets a bum rap for being dishonest

  • 77

    succumb to

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /səˈkʌm/

    答え

    • to not be able to fight an attack, an illness, a temptation, etc.

    解説

    She succumbed to the temptation of another drink.

  • 78

    gastrointestinal system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌɡæstrəʊɪnˈtestɪnl/

    答え

    • of or related to the stomach and intestines, intestinal

    解説

    消化器系

  • 79

    enteric

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /enˈterɪk/

    答え

    • connected with the intestines, intestinal

    解説

  • 80

    loaded with

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈləʊdɪd/

    答え

    • full, carrying a load; full and heavy

    解説

    a truck loaded with supplies

  • 81

    infusion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ɪnˈfjuːʒn/

    答え

    • the act of adding something to something else in order to make it stronger or more successful

    解説

    The company needs an infusion of new blood (= new employees with new ideas).

  • 82

    setback

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈsetbæk/

    答え

    • a difficulty or problem that delays or prevents something, or makes a situation worse

    解説

    The team suffered a major setback when their best player was injured.

  • 83

    override

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˌəʊvəˈraɪd/

    答え

    • to use your authority to reject somebody’s decision, order, etc., overrule

    解説

    The chairman overrode the committee's objections and signed the agreement.

  • 84

    rule out

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ruːl/

    答え

    • to state that something is not possible or that somebody/something is not suitable

    解説

    The proposed solution was ruled out as too expensive.

  • 85

    daunting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈdɔːntɪŋ/

    答え

    • making somebody feel nervous and less confident about doing something; likely to make somebody feel this way

    解説

    Starting a new job can be a daunting prospect.

  • 86

    payoff

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an advantage or a reward from something you have done

    解説

  • 87

    haul in

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /hɔːl/

    答え

    • to pull something/somebody with a lot of effort

    解説

    fishermen hauling in their nets

  • 88

    crustacean

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /krʌˈsteɪʃn/

    答え

    • any creature with a soft body that is divided into sections, and a hard outer shell. Most crustaceans live in water. Crabs, lobsters and shrimps are all crustaceans.

    解説

  • 89

    tumble

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈtʌmbl/

    答え

    • to fall suddenly and in a dramatic way

    解説

    The scaffolding came tumbling down.

  • 90

    be swamped wtih

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /swɒmp/

    答え

    • to make somebody have more of something than they can deal with

    解説

    The department was swamped with job applications.

  • 91

    gimmick

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈɡɪmɪk/

    答え

    • an unusual trick or unnecessary device that is intended to attract attention or to persuade people to buy something

    解説

    a new gimmick to encourage people to go to the cinema

  • 92

    proclaim

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /prəˈkleɪm/

    答え

    • to publicly and officially tell people about something important

    解説

    The president proclaimed a state of emergency.

  • 93

    beseech

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /bɪˈsiːtʃ/

    答え

    • to ask somebody for something in an anxious way because you want or need it very much

    解説

    Let him go, I beseech you!

  • 94

    sit on

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /sɪt/

    答え

    • to have an official position as something or as a member of something

    解説

    She sat on a number of committees.

  • 95

    proliferation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /prəˌlɪfəˈreɪʃn/

    答え

    • the sudden increase in the number or amount of something; a large number of a particular thing

    解説

    attempts to prevent cancer cell proliferation

  • 96

    taper off

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈteɪpə(r)/

    答え

    • to become gradually less in number, amount, degree, etc.

    解説

    The number of applicants for teaching posts has tapered off.

  • 97

    glut

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ɡlʌt/

    答え

    • a situation in which there is more of something than is needed or can be used

    解説

    a glut of cheap DVDs on the market

  • 98

    nibble away at

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈnɪbl/

    答え

    • to take away small amounts of something, so that the total amount is gradually reduced

    解説

    Inflation is nibbling away at spending power.

  • 99

    baulk at (NAE: balk)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /bɔːk/

    答え

    • to be unwilling to do something or become involved in something because it is difficult, dangerous, etc.

    解説

    US spelling balk: Many parents may baulk at the idea of paying $100 for a pair of shoes.

  • 100

    crayfish (NAE: crawfish)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • /ˈkreɪfɪʃ/

    答え

    • an animal like a small lobster, that lives in rivers and lakes and can be eaten, or one like a large lobster, that lives in the sea and can be eaten

    解説

    ザリガニ 伊勢エビ

57033

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