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Topic 11: Measurement and data processing

カード 27枚 作成者: Yuk0ga (作成日: 2016/09/30)

  • What is the absolute uncertainty of digital apparatus?


    Absolute uncertainty of mass balance = ±0.01g

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  • 1

    What is the absolute uncertainty of digital apparatus?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Absolute uncertainty of mass balance = ±0.01g

    答え

    • ± the smallest scale division

    解説

  • 2

    What is the absolute uncertainty of analog apparatus?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Absolute uncertainty of measuring cylinder = ±0.5cm^3 (1/2 cm^3)

    答え

    • ± half the smallest scale division

    解説

  • 3

    Formula for calculating percentage uncertainty:

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • (Absolute Uncertainty/Measured value)×100

    解説

  • 4

    What are quantitative data?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Examples include mass and volume

    答え

    • data taken from measurements made in the laboratory and is associated with random errors

    解説

  • 5

    What are qualitative data?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • Examples include color changes or the production of a gas

    答え

    • non-numerical data obtained from observations, not from measurements

    解説

  • 6

    What are random errors?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Errors that are caused by unpredictable changes in the experiment (in the conditions or apparatus) Random errors can be reduced by conducting repeat trials or by using precise apparatus.

    解説

  • 7

    What are systematic errors?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Errors that occur as a result of a flaw in the experimental design or apparatus. Systematic errors cannot be reduced by conducting repeat trials.

    解説

  • 8

    Equation of percentage error:

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • {(experimental value - theoretical value) / (theoretical value)} × 100

    解説

  • 9

    What is the Index of Hydrogen Deficiency (IHD)?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a count of how many molecules of H2 need to be added to convert the molecule to the corresponding saturated, non-cyclic molecule

    解説

  • 10

    What can be told by calculating the IHD?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The number of multiple bonds and rings present in the molecule.

    解説

  • 11

    The IHD for a hydrocarbon with x carbon atoms and y hydrogen atoms is given by the equation:

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • (2x+2-y)/2

    解説

  • 12

    State the rules in calculating the IHD for compounds that contain atoms other than hydrogen (H).

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. Sulfur (S) and oxygen (O) do not affect the IHD. 2. Halogens (F, Cl, Br, and I) are treated like H atoms. 3. For each nitrogen (N) atoms, add one to the number of C atoms and H atoms.

    解説

  • 13

    Fill in the blanks

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1) single 2) double 3) ring 4) triple

    解説

  • 14

    In what two regions can the Infrared spectrum be divided into?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Functional group region and fingerprint region

    解説

  • 15

    What can the fingerprint region be used for?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    • The fingerprint region is in the range of about 500 to 1500cm^-1.

    答え

    • It can be used to identify an unknown compound by comparing with the IR spectra of known compounds.

    解説

  • 16

    What can the functional group region be used for?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • It can be used to identify the functional groups present in the compound.

    解説

  • 17

    What kind of bond will only interact with IR radiation?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a polar covalent bond (non-polar bonds do not absorb IR radiation).

    解説

  • 18

    What is mass spectrometry used for?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • It is used for determining: 1. the relative atomic mass (Ar) of an element 2. the structure of a compound

    解説

  • 19

    Fill in the blanks

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1) Vaporisation 2) Ionisation 3) Acceleration in an electric field 4) Deflection in a magnetic field 5) Detection

    解説

  • 20

    When the vaporized organic sample passes into the ionization chamber of a mass spectrometer, and it is bombarded by a stream of electrons, what is produced?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the molecular ion

    解説

  • 21

    Inside the mass spectrometer, some of the molecular ions break down to produce ________.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fragments

    解説

  • 22

    1)____________ gives useful information about the structure of the compound, and it is shown in a 2)___________.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1) A fragmentation pattern 2) mass spectrum *the image is a mass spectrum that shows the fragmentation pattern for ethanoic acid.

    解説

  • 23

    What do the red lines represent?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a fragment produced when the molecular ion breaks up inside the mass spectrometer

    解説

  • 24

    What does the peak on the very right represent?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The relative molecular mass (Mr) of the compound

    解説

  • 25

    What does the number of peaks on the HNMR spectrum give?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the number of chemical environments in which hydrogen atoms (H) are located

    解説

  • 26

    What is the chemical shift measured relative to?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • TMS (tetramethylsilane)

    解説

    TMS has a chemical shift of 0

  • 27

    What does the integrated trace (red lines) tell you?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the ratio of hydrogen atoms in a chemical environment In the image the ratio is CHO:CH3 = 1:3

    解説

    The integrated trace goes up in steps which are proportional to the number of hydrogen atoms

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