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AP Lang

カード 80枚 作成者: Sean (作成日: 2013/11/18)

  • Personification

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教材の説明:

For advanced placement test

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  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    Personification

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • assigning human qualities to inanimate objects or concepts.

    解説

  • 2

    Parody

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule.

    解説

  • 3

    Tactile imagery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • descriptive language that appeals to the sense of touch

    解説

  • 4

    Metonymy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A type of metaphor in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. "The White House declared," from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name"

    解説

  • 5

    Hyperbole

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • deliberate exaggeration or overstatement

    解説

  • 6

    Paradox

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A statement that appears to be self-contradictory or opposed to common sense but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or validity. "I'm lying to you right now."

    解説

  • 7

    Anecdote

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate a point.

    解説

  • 8

    Ethos

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an appeal based on the character/reputation/ credibility of the speaker.

    解説

  • 9

    Dependent clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence, even though it has a subject and a verb,

    解説

  • 10

    Visual imagery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • descriptive language that appeals to the sense of sight

    解説

  • 11

    Point of View

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Who tells a story and how it is told. (1st, 2nd, 3rd limited, 3rd omniscient)

    解説

  • 12

    Deductive reasoning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect). "Teenagers cause the most car accidents. You're a teenager, you will get in a car accident."

    解説

  • 13

    Theme

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life. Usually unstated in fictional works, but in nonfiction may be directly stated, especially in expository or argumentative writing.

    解説

  • 14

    Thesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition.

    解説

  • 15

    Description

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A rhetorical mode based in the five senses. It aims to re-create, invent, or present something so that the reader can experience it.

    解説

  • 16

    Auditory imagery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • use of language to represent an experience pertaining to sound

    解説

  • 17

    Stream-of-consciousness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A narrative technique that places the reader in the mind and thought process of the narrator, no matter how random and spontaneous that may be.

    解説

  • 18

    Syllogism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a form of argument where if a=b, and b=c, then a=c (kind of like the transitive property in math). Can be used to create a logical fallacy

    解説

  • 19

    Rhetoric

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the techniques and rules for using language effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.

    解説

  • 20

    Cliche

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an overused saying or idea

    解説

  • 21

    Diction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the author's choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning

    解説

  • 22

    Prose

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The literary genre that is written in ordinary language and most closely resembles everyday speech. Opposite of verse.

    解説

  • 23

    Allusion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A reference to another work outside of the present work.

    解説

  • 24

    Antecedent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the word, phrase, or clause that a pronoun refers to.

    解説

  • 25

    Narrative

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.

    解説

  • 26

    Independent clause

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. Has both a subject and a verb.

    解説

  • 27

    Character

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • one who carries out the action of the plot in literature. Major, minor, static, and dynamic are the types.

    解説

  • 28

    Third Person Omniscient

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Point of view in which an all-knowing narrator who is privy to the thoughts and actions of any or all characters.

    解説

  • 29

    Situational Irony

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a type of irony in which events turn out the opposite of what was expected.

    解説

  • 30

    Frame Narrative

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a story that encloses one or more separate stories. (the frame is a vehicle for the stories it contains)

    解説

  • 31

    Dramatic Irony

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • In this type of irony, facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or a piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work

    解説

  • 32

    Homily

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.

    解説

  • 33

    Understatement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the opposite of exaggeration. It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended.

    解説

  • 34

    Asyndeton

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words, speeds up flow of sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z.

    解説

  • 35

    Inversion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the reversal of the normal order of words

    解説

  • 36

    Repetition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The duplication, either exact or approximate, or any element of language, such as sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern.

    解説

  • 37

    Euphony

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • any agreeable (pleasing and harmonious) sounds. Alliteration, assonance, rhyme all create this.

    解説

  • 38

    Epistrophe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • repetition of a word or expression at the end of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or verses especially for rhetorical or poetic effect. Opposite of anaphora. Ex: "When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child." (Corinthians)

    解説

  • 39

    Third Person Limited

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Point of view in which narrator exists outside of all characters, but is privy to the feelings and thoughts of one character, presenting only the actions of all remaining characters

    解説

  • 40

    Direct Characterization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the author directly states a character's traits

    解説

  • 41

    Cacophony

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • harsh, jarring, discordant sound; dissonance

    解説

  • 42

    Extended Metaphor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A metaphor that continues beyond it's initial use, can be developed at great length

    解説

  • 43

    Apostrophe

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when a speaker address someone/something that isn't there. Ex. "Are you there God? It's me, Mr. Ginley."

    解説

  • 44

    Denotation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the literal or dictionary meaning of a word

    解説

  • 45

    Euphemism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable. "He went to his final reward" for "he died."

    解説

  • 46

    Symbol

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Anything that represents, stands for, something else. Usually concrete—such as an object, action, character, or scene—that represents something more abstract.

    解説

  • 47

    Unreliable Narrator

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a narrator whose account of events appears to be faulty, misleadingly biased, or otherwise distorted

    解説

  • 48

    Analogy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Drawing a comparison to show a similarity in some respect. It is assumed that what applies to a parallel situation also applies to the original circumstance.

    解説

  • 49

    Gustatory imagery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • descriptive language that appeals to the sense of taste

    解説

  • 50

    Tone

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Attitudes and presuppositions of the author that are revealed by their linguistic choices (diction, syntax, rhetorical devices)

    解説

  • 51

    Voice

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Two definitions/uses. One refers to the total "sound" of the writer's style.The second refers to the relationship between a sentence's subject and verb (active and passive).

    解説

  • 52

    Antithesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the presentation of two contrasting ideas. The ideas are balanced by phrase, clause, or paragraphs.

    解説

  • 53

    Alliteration

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The repetition of sounds at the beginning of words, such as "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers."

    解説

  • 54

    Parallelism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • similarity in structure and syntax in a series of related words, phrases, clauses, sentences, or paragraphs that develops balance. Ex. "When you are right, you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative"- MLK

    解説

  • 55

    Persona

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of writing

    解説

  • 56

    Argumentation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments; persuasive writing is a form of argumentation

    解説

  • 57

    Genre

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama.

    解説

  • 58

    Oxymoron

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms. "jumbo shrimp" and "cruel kindness."

    解説

  • 59

    Juxtaposition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • placing two elements side by side to present a comparison or contrast

    解説

  • 60

    Verbal Irony

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • In this type of irony, the words literally state the opposite of the writer's true meaning

    解説

  • 61

    Colloquialism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Slang in writing, used often to create local color and to provide an informal tone. Twain's Huck Finn

    解説

  • 62

    Connotation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the feelings or emotions surrounding/associated with a word, beyond its literal meaning. Generally positive or negative in nature.

    解説

  • 63

    Simile

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a comparison using like or as

    解説

  • 64

    Aphorism

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • short, witty statement of truth

    解説

  • 65

    Syntax

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The grammatical structure of prose and poetry.

    解説

  • 66

    Satire

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and convention for reform or ridicule. Often uses imitation, irony, and/or sarcasm.

    解説

  • 67

    Allegory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A work that functions on a symbolic level (a type of extended symbolism)

    解説

  • 68

    Olfactory imagery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • descriptive language that appeals to the sense of smell

    解説

  • 69

    Polysyndeton

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Deliberate use of many conjunctions in close succession, especially where some might be omitted. Hemingway and the Bible both use extensively. Ex. "he ran and jumped and laughed for joy"

    解説

  • 70

    Pedantic tone

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • describes a tone that borders on lecturing, and is overly complex, scholarly, distant, and difficult

    解説

  • 71

    Sarcasm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • bitter, caustic language designed to hurt or ridicule someone or something. Often satirical or verbally ironic.

    解説

  • 72

    Inductive reasoning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • reasoning from detailed facts to general principles. Ex. "All of the ice we have examined so far is cold.Therefore, all ice is cold."

    解説

  • 73

    Indirect Characterization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the author reveals information about a character and his personality through that character's appearance, thoughts, words, and actions

    解説

  • 74

    Logos

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an appeal based on logic or reason

    解説

  • 75

    Anaphora

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row.

    解説

  • 76

    Metaphor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a comparison of two unlike things, not using like or as. "Your eyes are stars"

    解説

  • 77

    Invective

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language.

    解説

  • 78

    Onomatopoeia

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, hum.

    解説

  • 79

    Synecdoche

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Part as representative of the whole. "All hands on deck"

    解説

  • 80

    Pathos

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an appeal based on emotion.

    解説

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