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MBB1 learning&memory

カード 108枚 作成者: alice_blossoms (作成日: 2016/05/11)

  • simple, unlearned response controlled by the nervous system

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  • 1

    simple, unlearned response controlled by the nervous system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • reflex behavior

    解説

  • 2

    ___ means able to forget what is learned

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • extinction

    解説

  • 3

    ___ means able to keep what is learned

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • spontaneous recovery

    解説

  • 4

    _____ means that re-learning is considerably faster

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • rapid reacquisition

    解説

  • 5

    organisms are biologically prepared to learn certain associations quickly for survival

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • biological preparedness

    解説

  • 6

    ___ is one biological preparedness

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • phobias

    解説

  • 7

    one applied conditioning which disconnect fear and associate with relax

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • therapy

    解説

  • 8

    one applied conditioning which use conditioned response to midicine

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • placebo

    解説

  • 9

    one applied conditioning which is due to the conditioned situations and emotional status

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • drug use

    解説

  • 10

    two kinds of simple stimulas-response associations

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • rewards, punishment

    解説

  • 11

    two kinds of reinforcement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • positive, negative

    解説

  • 12

    one reinforcement that follow every responsee

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • continuous reinforcement

    解説

  • 13

    one reinforcement that doesn’t follow each response

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • intermitted/partial reinforcement

    解説

  • 14

    two kinds of intermitted reinforcement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ratio schedules, interval schedules

    解説

  • 15

    one kind of ratio schedules which leads to burst

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fixed ratio schedules

    解説

  • 16

    one kind of ratio schedules which leads to hope it is the next one

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • variable ratio schedules

    解説

  • 17

    one kind of interval schedules which cause excitement

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fixed interval schedules

    解説

  • 18

    one kind of interval schedules which is less predictable and leads to like testing

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • variable inteval schedules

    解説

  • 19

    ___ is to learn more complex behaviors, which is not in the animal's natural response

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • shaping

    解説

  • 20

    ___ can keep the response the most

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • partial reinforcement

    解説

  • 21

    ___ is by use of aversive consequences

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • punishment

    解説

  • 22

    punishment is more effective when ___ and ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • always and immidiate

    解説

  • 23

    _____ occurs when fear is replaced by depression

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • learned helplessness

    解説

  • 24

    a mental representation of a spatial characteristics of familiar environment

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • cognitive map

    解説

  • 25

    _____ is the way how chimps solve problems to get foods

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • insight learning

    解説

  • 26

    _____ is how learning takes place socially

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • observational learning

    解説

  • 27

    ___ neurons are active during observation of others and imagine as if doing oneself

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mirror

    解説

  • 28

    ___ is the processing of incoming information to be stored

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • encoding

    解説

  • 29

    ___ is inputs in temporary sensory storage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • acquisition

    解説

  • 30

    ___ is stronger representations which can recall later

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • consolidation

    解説

  • 31

    ___ is the application of stored information to create a conscious representation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • retrieval

    解説

  • 32

    one kind of retrieval whose examples are episodic or semantic memory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • explicit

    解説

  • 33

    one kind of retrieval whose examples are conditioning or procedural memory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • implicit

    解説

  • 34

    sensory memory's duration is _____ and capacity is ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • milisecs~secs, large

    解説

  • 35

    ___ sensory memory is for vision, ___ sensory memory is for audition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • iconic, echoic

    解説

  • 36

    sensory memory is a holding area between early sensory and later cognitive process as ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • buffer

    解説

  • 37

    Sperling used _____ technique to access sensory memory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • partial report technique

    解説

  • 38

    short-term memory's duration is _____ and capacity is ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • secs~mins, 3~7 items

    解説

  • 39

    In order to keep short-term memory, _____ is needed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • maintenance rehearsal

    解説

  • 40

    When losing short-term memory, ___ or ___ happens

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • decay or interference

    解説

  • 41

    one kind of interference which is due to recently encoded information

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • retroactive

    解説

  • 42

    one kind of interference which is due to previously encoded information

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • proactive

    解説

  • 43

    ___ is grouping information into meaningful units

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • chunking

    解説

  • 44

    the information in the beginning can be recalled because of _____ which means it rehearsed and transferred into LTM

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • primary effect

    解説

  • 45

    the information in the end can be recalled because of _____ which means it retained in sensory and STM

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • recency effect

    解説

  • 46

    one type of processing which leads to recall easily

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • deep processing

    解説

  • 47

    one type of processing which is limited

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • shallow processing

    解説

  • 48

    control system for LTM

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • central executive

    解説

  • 49

    ___ process is planning and coordination of complex behavior

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • executive

    解説

  • 50

    one system controlled by central executive for auditory LTM

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • phonological loop

    解説

  • 51

    one system controlled by central executive for visual LTM

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • visuo-spatial sketchpad

    解説

  • 52

    one effect of phonological loop that is hard to remember what sounds familiar

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • phonological similarity effect

    解説

  • 53

    one effect of phonological loop that is disturbed by repeating irrelevant sounds

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • articulatory suppression

    解説

  • 54

    one effect of phonological loop that words of less number of sounds is easier

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • word-length effect

    解説

  • 55

    one effect of phonological loop that is hard to do speech-based tasks when hearing speech-based sounds

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • unattended speech effect

    解説

  • 56

    one system controlled by central executive which is binding information from sources into coherent episodes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • episodic buffer

    解説

  • 57

    one of two kinds of long-term memory which is knowledge to recall consciously

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • declarative memory

    解説

  • 58

    declarative memory is revealed through _____ tests

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • explicit memory tests

    解説

  • 59

    one of two kinds of declarative memory which is personal experiences

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • episodic memory

    解説

  • 60

    one of two kinds of declarative memory which is facts about the world

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • semantic memory

    解説

  • 61

    one of two kinds of long-term memory which is knowledge to recall unconsciously

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • non-declarative memory

    解説

  • 62

    non-declarative memory is revealed through _____ tests

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • implicit memory tests

    解説

  • 63

    ___ memory in non-decralative memory is from learning motor skills, cognitive skills

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • procedual memory

    解説

  • 64

    ___ priming in non-decralative memory occurs with familiar stimulus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • repetition priming

    解説

  • 65

    ___ priming in non-decralative memory occurs with related stimulus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • associate/semantic priming

    解説

  • 66

    conditioning are exanples of ___ memory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • non-decralative memory

    解説

  • 67

    non-___ learning is also a example of non-decralative memory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • associative

    解説

  • 68

    one of two types of non-associative memory which is to ignore a disturbing stimulus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • habituation

    解説

  • 69

    one of two types of non-associative memory which is to attend to a potentially threating stimulus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • senstisation

    解説

  • 70

    ___ amnesia has inability to remember knowledge about anything before the brain surgery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • retrograde

    解説

  • 71

    ___ amnesia has inability to remember knowledge about anything after the brain surgery

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • anterograde

    解説

  • 72

    anterograde amnesia still capable of learning a new ___ skills (___ learning)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • motor, procedual learning

    解説

  • 73

    one of which is capable in anterograde amnesia: cued recall, word-stem completion, free recall, recognition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • word-stem completion

    解説

  • 74

    ___ rules are of sentence formation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • syntax

    解説

  • 75

    ___ rules are of which sounds can start/end a word and can be combined

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • phonotactic

    解説

  • 76

    ___ are the smallest unit of words with meaning

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • morphene

    解説

  • 77

    ___ are the smallest unit of speech sound

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • phonome

    解説

  • 78

    _____ is shared characteristics of different languages

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • universal grammer

    解説

  • 79

    2 stages of language acquisition

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • pre-linguistic stage, linguistic stage

    解説

  • 80

    ___ is also a part of pre-linguistic stage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • babbling

    解説

  • 81

    ___ sentences mean one word sentence

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • holopharastic sentences

    解説

  • 82

    in two words stage, ___ language ability is better than ___ language ability

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • receptive, productive

    解説

  • 83

    in more than three words stage, ___ speech starts which exculde small function words

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • telegraphic speech

    解説

  • 84

    biological ability for language is called _____

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • language acquisition device

    解説

  • 85

    ___ is the entire set of morphemes in a given language or an individual's vocabulary

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • lexicon

    解説

  • 86

    Shepard & Metzler and Stephen Kosslyn believe that mental lotation is done as ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • spatial

    解説

  • 87

    Zenon Pylyshyn believes that mental lotation is done as ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • propositional

    解説

  • 88

    By use of ___ and later ___, mental rotation is found to activate _____.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fMRI, TMS, primary motor cortex

    解説

  • 89

    We can select ___ task-___ response, and it requires _____.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • weaker, relevent, cognitive control

    解説

  • 90

    Norman & Shallice state ___ as learned plans for action sequences

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • schemate

    解説

  • 91

    Schemate is done by ___ stimuli or _____ system

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • sensory stimuli, supervisory attentional system

    解説

  • 92

    Heckhausen & Gollwitzer suggest ___, the way to protect a selected intention from other choices

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Rubicon-model

    解説

  • 93

    4 steps of Rubicon-model

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • weighing up alternatives, planning, action execution, evaluation

    解説

  • 94

    weighing up alternatives and evaluation are ___ steps

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • motivational (selection of goals)

    解説

  • 95

    planning and action execution are ___ steps

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • volitional (selestion of actions)

    解説

  • 96

    one of 2 control mind-sets by Julius Kuhl, which focuses on achieving

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • action orientation

    解説

  • 97

    one of 2 control mind-sets by Julius Kuhl, which focuses on negative emotions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • state orientation

    解説

  • 98

    Benjamin Libet measures _____ for conscious free decisions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • readiness potential

    解説

  • 99

    Daniel Wegner state that we are conscious about what is ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • apparent

    解説

  • 100

    3 conditions to perceive something as willed

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • priority, consistency, exclusivity

    解説

  • 101

    David Chalmers say that consciousness is _____

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • hard problem

    解説

  • 102

    Rene Descartes state that consciousness is interaction between mind and brain or body via _____ in brain

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Pineal Gland

    解説

  • 103

    A theory by Rene Descartes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Substance Dualism

    解説

  • 104

    In Substance Dualism, _____ is mental area and ___ is physical area

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • res cogitans, res extensa

    解説

  • 105

    A theory by Bishop George Berkeley, which is that everything is mind

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • idealism

    解説

  • 106

    A theory which is that everything is under laws of physics

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • materialism

    解説

  • 107

    we are only conscious of what is in focus of ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • attention

    解説

  • 108

    Susan Blackmore believe that consciousness is ___

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • illusion

    解説

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