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Igneous Processes Vocab

カード 40枚 作成者: Ray (作成日: 2013/11/01)

  • pyroclastic material

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言語:

  • カード表 : 英語
  • カード裏 : 英語
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  • 1

    pyroclastic material

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fragments of rock that form during a volcanic eruption.

    解説

  • 2

    Igneous rock

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • rock formed by the solidification of molten magma

    解説

  • 3

    lahar

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a volcanic mudflow.

    解説

  • 4

    Bowen"s reaction series

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point

    解説

  • 5

    vent

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • volcano opening from which lava and other gases flow. Found in the crater of a volcano

    解説

  • 6

    Pegmatite

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a very coarse-grained igneous rock (typically granite) commonly found as a dike associated with a large mass of plutonic rock that has smaller crystals; crystallization in a water-rich environment is believed to be responsible for the very large crystals

    解説

  • 7

    cinder cone

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a steep, cone-shaped hill or small mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening

    解説

  • 8

    hot spot/mantle plume

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A hot plume, which may extend to Earth's core-mantle boundary and can produce a volcanic region a few hundred kilometers across.

    解説

  • 9

    volcano

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a mountainous accumulation of material formed by successive eruptions from a central vent.

    解説

  • 10

    viscosity

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a measure of a material's resistance to flow.

    解説

  • 11

    nuee ardente/pyroclastic flow

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A hot, high-velocity mixture of ash, gas and fragmented rock that flows like a liquid down slopes and over terrain.

    解説

  • 12

    laccolith

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Relatively small, lens-shaped pluton that forms when magma intrudes into parallel rock layers close to Earth's surface.

    解説

  • 13

    Rock Cycle

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes

    解説

  • 14

    plutons

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Intrusive igneous rock bodies, including batholiths, stocks, sills, and dikes, formed through mountain-building processes and oceanic-oceanic collisions; can be exposed at Earth's surface due to uplift and erosion.

    解説

  • 15

    basaltic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • dense, dark-colored igneous rock formed from magma;rich in magnesium and iron and poor in silica.

    解説

  • 16

    shield volcano

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A low, flat, gently sloping volcano built from many flows of fluid, low-viscosity basaltic lava

    解説

  • 17

    porphyritic texture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • An igneous rock texture in which large crystals are scattered on a background of much smaller crystals.

    解説

  • 18

    caldera

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an unusually large volcanic summit depression that exceeds 1 km in diameter.

    解説

  • 19

    fine-grained texture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • igneous rocks that form rapidly at the surface often have this type of texture, where the individaul crystals are too small to be seen with the unaided eye

    解説

  • 20

    coarse-grained texture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an igneous rock texture in which the crystals are roughly equal in size and large enough so that individual minerals can be identified with the unaided eye

    解説

  • 21

    magma

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • molten rock in the earth's crust

    解説

  • 22

    crystal setting

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • downward movement of mineral in cooling magma

    解説

  • 23

    dike

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a sheetlike body that is produced when magma is injected into a fracture that cuts across rock layers.

    解説

  • 24

    aa flow

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a type of lava flow that has a jagged blocky surface

    解説

  • 25

    ultramafic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Igneous rocks with low silica content and very high levels of magnesium and iron. Periodite, dunites, and doirite are examples.

    解説

  • 26

    flood basalt

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • flow of basaltic lava that issue from numerous cracks or fissures and commonly cover extensive areas to thicknesses of hundreds of meters

    解説

  • 27

    composite cone/stratovolcano

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a volcano composed of both lava flows and pyroclastic material

    解説

  • 28

    texture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • describes the overall appearance of an igneous rock, based on the size and arrangement of its interlocking crystals

    解説

  • 29

    crystallization

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process by which atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern

    解説

  • 30

    extrusive (volcanic)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • igneous rocks that result when lava solidifies

    解説

  • 31

    pahoehoe flow

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a lava flow with a smooth-to-ropy surface

    解説

  • 32

    intrusive/plutonic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • igneous rock that formed below the earths surface

    解説

  • 33

    batholith

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • large mass of intrusive igneous rock believed to have solidified deep within the earth

    解説

  • 34

    felsic/granitic

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.

    解説

  • 35

    fissure eruption

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • an eruption in which lava is extruded from narrow fractures or cracks in the crust

    解説

  • 36

    andesitic/intermediate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mineral compisiton that are between "Granitic" and "Basaltic"

    解説

  • 37

    lava

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • magma that reaches Earth's surface

    解説

  • 38

    volcanic neck

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • solid igneous core of a volcano left behind after the softer cone has been eroded. Example: Ship Rock, New Mexico

    解説

  • 39

    glassy texture

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A texture formed when a rock cools so fast it doesn't have time to crystallize

    解説

  • 40

    sill

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a flat (usually horizontal) mass of igneous rock between two layers of older sedimentary rock

    解説

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