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Geoscience Weathering and Erosion

カード 89枚 作成者: Ray (作成日: 2013/11/01)

  • What is Weathering?

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  • カード表 : 英語
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  • 1

    What is Weathering?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the break down of exposed rock

    解説

  • 2

    What is Erosion?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the break down and transport of weathered rock by natural agents.

    解説

  • 3

    list the 2 general types of weathering.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Mechanical & Chemical

    解説

  • 4

    What is another name for mehanical weathering & the "D" word?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Physical Weathering/ Disintegration

    解説

  • 5

    Define Mechanical weathering.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the physical breaking up of rock material without altering the chemical composition (Disintergration).

    解説

  • 6

    What is the "D" word for chemical weathering?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Decomposition

    解説

  • 7

    Define Chemical Weathering.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the break down of rock by changing the chemical composition.

    解説

  • 8

    What are the 7 types of mechanical weathering?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Temperature change, Ice Wedging, Joint sheeting, Exfoliation, Action of plants, Action of animals, & Abrasion.

    解説

  • 9

    define temperature change in M.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • In places where the temperature fluctuates the constant expansion and contraction of rock breaks it.

    解説

  • 10

    define ice wedging in M.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • water seeps into cracks, it then freezes (expanding 10%) placing pressure on the rock. causes road damage.

    解説

  • 11

    define Joint Sheeting in M.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • expossed bed rock causes joints or long cracks parallel to the surface to form, due to a decrease in pressure.

    解説

  • 12

    define Exfoliation in M.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the peeling off of rock layers.

    解説

  • 13

    define action of plants in M.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • growth of small plants. plants do damage by growing of releasing enzymes.

    解説

  • 14

    define action of animals in M.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Burrowing in soil and traveling across land expose bedrock and soil to water and air.

    解説

  • 15

    define Abrasion in M.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the collision of rocks with each other. Ex: fast moving river

    解説

  • 16

    What are the 4 types of Chemical Weathering?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Hydration, Oxidation, Carbonation, & Acids

    解説

  • 17

    Define hydration in C.W. & another name for it.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • (hydrolysis) the chemical reaction with water and a substance combines with water to form new substances. feldspar + water = kaolinite (clay mineral)

    解説

  • 18

    Define Oxidation in C.W. & describe the 2 types of rust it makes.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • chemical reactions between oxygen and a substance. (usually iron substances are affected the most) , Ex: form iron oxides/ rust when reaction with oxygen. 2 types:1. red rust- made from Iron & oxygen (slow) 2. brown rust- made from Iron, oxygen, & water (fast)

    解説

  • 19

    Define Carbonation in C.W. & the acid it produces.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Carbon dioxide by itself has no weathering effect but...., Carbon dioxide + Water = H2CO3 (carbonic acid), Carbonic acid can dissolve minrals such as: Hornblende, Feldspars, Augite, Micas, & most of all CALCITE (limestone) it dissolves it.

    解説

  • 20

    Define acids in C.W.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • formed by plant roots and carried by rain. these form as rain dissolves soluble gasses such as CO2, SO2, & SO3.

    解説

  • 21

    What mineral is immune to chemical and mechanical weathering due to its hardness and internal structure? what is it's hardness?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Quartz, *hardness = 7

    解説

  • 22

    What 2 minerals are strongly affected by weathering?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • limestone & Calcite

    解説

  • 23

    What are the 4 agents of weathering in rocks?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • rock composition, amount of exposure, climate, & topography

    解説

  • 24

    What are the 4 percents of soil components?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * weathered rocks and minerals = 45%, * water = 25%, * air = 25%, * humus = 5%

    解説

  • 25

    What are the two general layers of rock?define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Bedrock (solid rock - granite) & Regolith (weathered rock fragments that covers solid bedrock- sand & gravel)

    解説

  • 26

    What are the 2 types of soil?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Residual & Transported

    解説

  • 27

    what are the 4 factors that determine soil types?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • climate, time, plants & animals, slope & topography

    解説

  • 28

    A soil profile cosists of 4 layers called ________.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • horizons

    解説

  • 29

    what are the 4 horizons in a soil profile? (describe each)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. TOPSOIL-? * contains organic and small rock materials and humus, * zone from which surface water leaches the minerals

    解説

  • 30

    what are the 4 horizons in a soil profile? (describe each)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. SUBSOIL- * contains minerals leached from the topsoil, clay, &?sometimes humus.

    解説

  • 31

    what are the 4 horizons in a soil profile? (describe each)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. BOTTUM LAYER OF SOIL- * contains bedrock that has been partially weathered, * the 1st stage of mechanical and chemical weathering

    解説

  • 32

    what are the 4 horizons in a soil profile? (describe each)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. SOLID BEDROCK-? * unweathered ex: Granite

    解説

  • 33

    What are the 3 soil types based on climate?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Pealfer, Peocals, & Laterite.

    解説

  • 34

    The US has a __________ climate type.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • temperate

    解説

  • 35

    define Pedalfer. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * Ped=soil Al=aluminum Fer=iron

    解説

  • 36

    define Pedalfer. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * eastern US

    解説

  • 37

    define Pedalfer. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * 65+ cm of rain/ year

    解説

  • 38

    define Pedalfer. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • *many minerals leached out by rain.

    解説

  • 39

    define leaching.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the process by which water crries dissolve minerals to lower rock.

    解説

  • 40

    define Peocals. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * Ped=soil Cal=calcium

    解説

  • 41

    define Peocals. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * western US

    解説

  • 42

    define Peocals. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * <65 cm of rain/ year

    解説

  • 43

    define Peocals. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * rich in ca and ca compounds (no leaching)

    解説

  • 44

    define Peocals. what its made of, where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • *few clays

    解説

  • 45

    define Laterite. where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * tropical climates with heavy rainfall

    解説

  • 46

    define Laterite. where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * excesive leaching 7 chem. weathering creating Iron & Al oxides

    解説

  • 47

    define Laterite. where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * little humus but lots of clay

    解説

  • 48

    define Laterite. where its locateed, rain per year, & leaching or not.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * makes red soil/ rust

    解説

  • 49

    what are the 4 types of soil textures?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Sand , Silt, Clay, & Loam.

    解説

  • 50

    define sand. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * coarse/ gritty

    解説

  • 51

    define sand. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * .05 - 2 mm

    解説

  • 52

    define sand. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * water drains well

    解説

  • 53

    define silt. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * fine & slipery

    解説

  • 54

    define silt. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * .002 - .05 mm

    解説

  • 55

    define silt. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * water drains poorly (poor for crops)

    解説

  • 56

    define clay. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * the finest

    解説

  • 57

    define clay. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * < .002 mm

    解説

  • 58

    define clay. feel, partical size, and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * soil holds water (very bad for crops)

    解説

  • 59

    define Loam. feel & and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * mixture of sand, silt, & clay.

    解説

  • 60

    define Loam. feel & and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * great for crops

    解説

  • 61

    define Loam. feel & and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • * hold water long enough for roots to use & the excess is?

    解説

  • 62

    define Loam. feel & and how well water drains.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • drained away.

    解説

  • 63

    what are the 3 examples of soil erosion. what is the biggest one?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • water, wind, &

    解説

  • 64

    give 3 examples of soil erosion by human activity. also, short & long term effects.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • farming, forestry, and construction.

    解説

  • 65

    give 3 examples of soil erosion by human activity. also, short & long term effects.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • *short term effects: low soil fertility (bad growing condition)

    解説

  • 66

    give 3 examples of soil erosion by human activity. also, short & long term effects.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • *long term effects: land destruction, Low $$$ & low agriculture productivity.

    解説

  • 67

    what are 7 soil conservation techniques? define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. wind breaks- long rows of trees around feild.

    解説

  • 68

    what are 7 soil conservation techniques? define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. contourplwing- planting rows along contours. (prevents water chaneling)

    解説

  • 69

    what are 7 soil conservation techniques? define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. Terracing- step like ridges on slopes

    解説

  • 70

    what are 7 soil conservation techniques? define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. strip cropping- alternate crop rows

    解説

  • 71

    what are 7 soil conservation techniques? define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 5. crop rotation- rotate to differant crop every year.

    解説

  • 72

    what are 7 soil conservation techniques? define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 6. No till- leave harvest remainsto protect soil & replenish?nutrients.

    解説

  • 73

    what are 7 soil conservation techniques? define each.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 7. Fallow- leave the feild alone for @ least 1 year.

    解説

  • 74

    define mass movements.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • when gravity causes rock fragments (soil) to fal, slide or move fast or move at an extremely slow speed to lower level.

    解説

  • 75

    list the 5 types of fast mass movements.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1. rock fall

    解説

  • 76

    list the 5 types of fast mass movements.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2. landslides

    解説

  • 77

    list the 5 types of fast mass movements.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 3. mudflow

    解説

  • 78

    list the 5 types of fast mass movements.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 4. avalanche

    解説

  • 79

    list the 5 types of fast mass movements.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 5. slump

    解説

  • 80

    what is a slow mass movement? describe.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Creek- the slow invisable down slope movement of soil & can only be detected by it's effects such as causing fixed objects to lean down hill. water helps gravity in this process.

    解説

  • 81

    what is the PH?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the acidic or alkalinity (base)

    解説

  • 82

    what is the PH unit?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration. it increases in a ten fold change ( 10x ).

    解説

  • 83

    pH of 6 is _____x more acidic than a pH of 7.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 10x

    解説

  • 84

    pH of 4 is _____x more acidic than a pH of 6.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 100x

    解説

  • 85

    pH of 11 is _____x more basic than a pH of 8.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1000x

    解説

  • 86

    draw the pH scale.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Extremly basic = 14

    解説

  • 87

    draw the pH scale.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Neutral = 7

    解説

  • 88

    draw the pH scale.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Extremly acidic = 0

    解説

  • 89

    know how to use the soil graph.

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • follow the 3 arrows to find the ersentage points of sand, silt, and clay.

    解説

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