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Midterm bio

カード 147枚 作成者: yutotakebayashi (作成日: 2015/06/21)

  • subjective knowledge

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  • 1

    subjective knowledge

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • based on own personal feeling

    解説

  • 2

    objective knowledge

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • based on careful, systematic observation

    解説

  • 3

    Evolution

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • gradual change in species to make them better suited to their environment

    解説

  • 4

    Invisible factor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Traits are inherited as discrete genes

    解説

  • 5

    DNA serves as a template for

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • its own and RNA synthesis

    解説

  • 6

    Cell theory

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The cell is the basic unit of structure and function of all living things

    解説

  • 7

    The three domains of life

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya

    解説

  • 8

    Nucleus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • contains DNA and is the site where replication and transcription

    解説

  • 9

    Ribosomes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • site of protein synthesis attached to rough ER

    解説

  • 10

    Smooth ER

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a variety of metabolic processes, the storage of calcium ion

    解説

  • 11

    Rough ER

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Protein synthesis

    解説

  • 12

    Golgi apparatus

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • molecular ware house and processing station for products manufactured by the ER

    解説

  • 13

    Lysosomes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • digestive compartments within a cell

    解説

  • 14

    Vacuoles

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • general maintenance of the cell

    解説

  • 15

    Mitochondria

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • generate ATP from energy derived from food

    解説

  • 16

    Chloroplasts

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • carry out converting solar energy to chemical energy

    解説

  • 17

    Endosymbiosis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the idea that the chloroplast and mitochondrion are derived from prokaryotic life

    解説

  • 18

    Microtubules

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • responsible for segregation of chromosomes

    解説

  • 19

    Intermediate filaments

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • reinforce cell shape and anchor some organelles

    解説

  • 20

    Microfilaments

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • important in muscle and skeletal muscle concentration

    解説

  • 21

    Anchor point

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • strengthens tissue

    解説

  • 22

    Tight junctions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • prevent passage of solute

    解説

  • 23

    Gap junctions

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • allow exchange of materials between cells, ex heart and developing embryo

    解説

  • 24

    Plasmodesmata

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • allow for exchange of materials between the cell and its environment

    解説

  • 25

    Diffusion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tendency of molecules to move from an area of high to low concentration area

    解説

  • 26

    Osmosis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • diffusion of water low to high concentration

    解説

  • 27

    passive doffusion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • doesn't require energy and protein channel

    解説

  • 28

    facilitated transport

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • require protein channel but not energy

    解説

  • 29

    Active transport

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • requires a protein channel and energy

    解説

  • 30

    Aquaporin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • allows for rapid movement of water across the plasma membrane

    解説

  • 31

    Exocytosis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane torelease its contents

    解説

  • 32

    receptor mediated endocytosis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • take up nutrients or other materials

    解説

  • 33

    Atomic number

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • number of protons

    解説

  • 34

    Mass number

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • number of protons and neutrons

    解説

  • 35

    Temperature moderation(water)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • water can absorb a lot of heat with small change in temperture

    解説

  • 36

    Solvent of life

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • water serves as dissolving an enormous variety of solutes necessary for life

    解説

  • 37

    cohesion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tendency of molecules to stick to one another; responsible for surface tension

    解説

  • 38

    adhesion

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • tendency of molecules to stick to othermolecules

    解説

  • 39

    pH

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • is a negative log scale so the lower the number the higher the H concentration

    解説

  • 40

    Hydroxyl

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • -OH

    解説

  • 41

    amino

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • NH2

    解説

  • 42

    carboxyl

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • c=O\ OH

    解説

  • 43

    phosphate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • PO4

    解説

  • 44

    Polysaccharides

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • α-glucosidic (digestible by animals) vs. β-glucosidic (not digestible by animals) linkage

    解説

  • 45

    Unsatured fat

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • double bonds, usually liquid at room temperature as oils

    解説

  • 46

    Triacyglycerol

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • energy storage, insulation,cushioning of internal organs

    解説

  • 47

    phospholipid

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Fatty acid tail are hydrophobic while phosphate head group is hydrophilic.

    解説

  • 48

    Cholesterol

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • integrate into membranes to increase rigidity, precursor for steroid hormones

    解説

  • 49

    Protein

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Enzymes and transporters, encodes the properties of an organism,transfers those traits to next generations

    解説

  • 50

    Peptide bond

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Occurs between the carboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the amino group of the next amino acid

    解説

  • 51

    Enzymes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy, affect the kinetics of reaction

    解説

  • 52

    Nucleotides

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • nitrogen base, sugar, phosphate group, polymerization

    解説

  • 53

    mRNA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • conveys genetic messages from DNA to the translation the cell

    解説

  • 54

    tRNA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • picking up the appropriate amino acid and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA

    解説

  • 55

    Lac operon

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Operon can turn on because lactose interferces with repressor

    解説

  • 56

    Trp operon

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • normally turned on but can be repressed

    解説

  • 57

    Operon

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the entire area of DNA required for enzyme production

    解説

  • 58

    Activator

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • promote to turn operon on by binding to DNA

    解説

  • 59

    Enhancer

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • distant DNA elements that control gene expression

    解説

  • 60

    miRNA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • . affect gene expression by blocking the translation or promoting the degradation of complimentary mRNA

    解説

  • 61

    Translation initiation

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Some mRNA will accumulate but not be translated until their encoded protein is needed

    解説

  • 62

    Expression of Recombinant Proteins

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • e.g insullin for the treatment of diabetes

    解説

  • 63

    Cloned rice

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • genetically altered to produce β-carotene

    解説

  • 64

    Insulin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • signals the liver to stop making glucose

    解説

  • 65

    Asexual Reproduction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a single organism or cell makes a copy of itself.

    解説

  • 66

    budding

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • outgrowth and splitting of new individual

    解説

  • 67

    fission

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • one parent into two offspring of equal size

    解説

  • 68

    Sexual Reproduction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two parents, almost limitless diversity, better able to survive rapid environment

    解説

  • 69

    Prokaryotes reproduce by

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • binary fission

    解説

  • 70

    G1

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • cytoplasmic component and cell size increase

    解説

  • 71

    S

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • DNA is replicated

    解説

  • 72

    G2

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • DNA repair

    解説

  • 73

    Prophase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The nuclear membrane break down, chromosomes become distributed, mitotic spindle begins to form, DNA condenses

    解説

  • 74

    Metaphase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The chromosomes become arranged near the center of the cell

    解説

  • 75

    Anaphase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The chromosomes separate and move toward opposite end of the cell

    解説

  • 76

    Telophase

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The cell plate starts to form as a fine line

    解説

  • 77

    Cytokinesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a cleavage furrow forms and the cell pinches intwo

    解説

  • 78

    Plant cytokinesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a new cell wall forms between the two daughter cells

    解説

  • 79

    G1 check point

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • many growth factors work byovercoming this checkpoint.

    解説

  • 80

    G0 chack point

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mitosis is stopped or withdrawn from cell cycle

    解説

  • 81

    Tumor

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mass of transformed cells; no density-dependent inhibition

    解説

  • 82

    Transformation(cancer)

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • uncontrolled growth, growth factor independence

    解説

  • 83

    Homologous chromosomes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the chromosomes an individual inherits from their parents

    解説

  • 84

    Sister chromatids

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the chromosomes when a cell undergoes DNA replication.

    解説

  • 85

    Meiosis 2

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • starts with a haploid cell

    解説

  • 86

    For humans possible gamates

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 2の23乗、8million

    解説

  • 87

    Crossing over happens

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Prophase 1

    解説

  • 88

    Nondisjunction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during anaphase I or of sister chromatids to separate during anaphase II.

    解説

  • 89

    Down syndrome

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21

    解説

  • 90

    How can two plants with different genotypes for a particular inherited character be identical in phenotype?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • One could be a homozygous for the dominant and the other could be a heterozygous

    解説

  • 91

    A plant of genotype AABbCC is crossed with an AaBbCc plant. What is the probability of an offspring having a AABBCC genotype

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1/2(A) 1/4(B)1/2(c)=1/16

    解説

  • 92

    A plant of genotype AABbCC is crossed with an AaBbCc plant. What is the probability of an offspring having a AABBCC genotype

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • 1/2(A) 1/4(B)1/2(c)=1/16

    解説

  • 93

    polygenic traits

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • most traits are influenced by more than one (in many cases dozens) of genes

    解説

  • 94

    linkage

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • genes close to one another on the same gene are inherited together and do not sort independently.

    解説

  • 95

    Condominance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • results when both alleles contribute to the phenotype

    解説

  • 96

    pleiotropy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A single gene can have many effects

    解説

  • 97

    Maria has type O blood and her sister has type AB. Both of her maternal grandparents are type A. What is the genotype of the girls’ parents?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Their mother is Iai, their father is Ibi

    解説

  • 98

    Maria has type O blood and her sister has type AB. Both of her maternal grandparents are type A. What is the genotype of the girls’ parents?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Their mother is Iai, their father is Ibi

    解説

  • 99

    polygenic inheritance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the additive effects of tow or more genes on single phenotypic character

    解説

  • 100

    linked gene

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Genes near one another on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together

    解説

  • 101

    Haplotype

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • group of genes inherited together. Tend to stay together for many generations.

    解説

  • 102

    When does crossing over happen

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a gene swapping process that occurs only in meiosis at prophase-1.

    解説

  • 103

    Linked gene

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • genes that are on the same chromosome

    解説

  • 104

    PKU

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the absence of an enzyme leads to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine, resulting in the accumulation of toxic substances that poison neurons.

    解説

  • 105

    aminocentesis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A technique for diagnosing genetic defects while a fetus is in the uterus

    解説

  • 106

    Chorionic Villus Sampling

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A technique for diagnosing genetic defects while the fetus is in early development stage

    解説

  • 107

    Polygenic Traits

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • most traits are influenced by more than one

    解説

  • 108

    Incomolete doinance

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the phenotype of the heterozygote is not equal between two homozygotes

    解説

  • 109

    Pleiotropy

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A single gene can have many effects

    解説

  • 110

    Mapping

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the closer two genes are to one another on a chromosome, the less likelya crossover between them

    解説

  • 111

    The Y chromosome is

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • very small andcontains very few genes

    解説

  • 112

    XHXh

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • mother, not a hemophiliac but is a carrier

    解説

  • 113

    XhY

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • father, not a hemophiliac

    解説

  • 114

    What limits the size of cell?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • The need to exchange materials with the environment

    解説

  • 115

    Cellulose is not digestive by most animals because

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • It contains β-glycosidic linkages between its glucose monomers

    解説

  • 116

    The main role of triacylglycerol in animals is

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • energy storage

    解説

  • 117

    Ibuprofen works by

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • inhibiting an enzyme

    解説

  • 118

    The three components of a nucleotide are

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Phosphate, nitrogen base, ribose sugar

    解説

  • 119

    Okazaki fragments

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • discontinuous, short, synthesized DNA fragment

    解説

  • 120

    tRNA

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • binds amino acids and brings them to the ribosome

    解説

  • 121

    Autosomes

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • not directly involve in determining the sex of organism

    解説

  • 122

    tetrad

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two pairs of sister chromatids

    解説

  • 123

    when happens crossing over?

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Prophase 1

    解説

  • 124

    homozygous

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two of the same allele

    解説

  • 125

    heterozygous

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • two different of the allele

    解説

  • 126

    Allele pairs segregate during

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Anaphase1

    解説

  • 127

    Cell derives from

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • previously cells

    解説

  • 128

    phospholipid

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group

    解説

  • 129

    Chromatin often used to refer to

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • the diffuse

    解説

  • 130

    Nucleous site of

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • ribosome assembly

    解説

  • 131

    microtube

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • responsible for segregation of chromosomes

    解説

  • 132

    pinocytosis

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • taking in fluid together with its contents into the cell

    解説

  • 133

    nondisjunction

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during anaphase I or of sister chromatids to separate during anaphase II.

    解説

  • 134

    vascular Tissue

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • conduct water, dissolved minerals

    解説

  • 135

    Xylem

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Water and mineral transport from roots to aerial parts of the plant, includes dead cell

    解説

  • 136

    Phloem

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • distributes sugars throughout the plant, consists living cell

    解説

  • 137

    lignin

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • support the cell wall of plant tissue, including xylem

    解説

  • 138

    gametangia

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a structure of plants that forms gametes

    解説

  • 139

    spore

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a cell that can develop into a new organism without fusing with another cell

    解説

  • 140

    Moss

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • stomata only on sporophytes, no lignin, vascular tissue

    解説

  • 141

    Alga

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • performs photosynthesis, absorbs water, CO2, minerals from the water

    解説

  • 142

    fern

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • roots anchor plants, reinforced cell walls

    解説

  • 143

    sprophyte

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Sporophyte the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations

    解説

  • 144

    Gameotophyte

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • Gameotophyte multicellular haploid plant, produces gametes by mitosis

    解説

  • 145

    gymnosperm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a vascular plant having seeds that are not encloses in an ovar

    解説

  • 146

    angiosperm

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • a plant having its seeds enclosed in an ovary

    解説

  • 147

    germinate

    補足(例文と訳など)

    答え

    • to begin to grow

    解説

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